Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis

References

Key articles

Ismail N, Soong L, McBride JW, et al. Overproduction of TNF-alpha by CD8+ type 1 cells and down-regulation of IFN-gamma production by CD4+ Th1 cells contribute to toxic shock-like syndrome in an animal model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:1786-1800. Abstract

Weil AA, Baron EL, Brown CM, et al. Clinical findings and diagnosis in human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case series from Massachusetts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Mar;87(3):233-9. Abstract

Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis - United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.Full text  Abstract

Thomas RJ, Dumler JS, Carlyon JA. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 22009 Aug;7(6):709-22.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Anderson BE, Dawson JE, Jones DC, et al. Ehrlichia chaffeensis, a new species associated with human ehrlichiosis. J Clin Microbiol. 1991 Dec;29(12):2838-42. Abstract

3. Chen SM, Dumler JS, Bakken JS, et al. Identification of a granulocytotropic Ehrlichia species as the etiologic agent of human disease. J Clin Microbiol. 1994 Mar;32(3):589-95. Abstract

4. Buller RS, Arens M, Hmiel SP, et al. Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jul 15;341(3):148-55.Full text  Abstract

5. Johnson DK, Schiffman EK, Davis JP, et al. Human infection with Ehrlichia muris-like pathogen, United States, 2007-2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Oct;21(10):1794-9. Abstract

6. Saito TB, Thirumalapura NR, Shelite TR, et al. An animal model of a newly emerging human ehrlichiosis. J Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 1;211(3):452-61. Abstract

7. von Loewenich FD, Geissdörfer W, Disqué C, et al. Detection of "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in two patients with severe febrile illnesses: evidence for a European sequence variant. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Jul;48(7):2630-5.Full text  Abstract

8. Welc-Falęciak R, Siński E, Kowalec M, et al. Asymptomatic "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" infections in immunocompetent humans. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Aug;52(8):3072-4.Full text  Abstract

9. Raoult D. Uncultured candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Oct;59(7):1042. Abstract

10. Grankvist A, Andersson PO, Mattsson M, et al. Infections with the tick-borne bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" mimic noninfectious conditions in patients with B cell malignancies or autoimmune diseases. Clinical infectious diseases: an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2014 Jun;58(12):1716-22.Full text  Abstract

11. Andréasson K, Jönsson G, Lindell P, et al. Recurrent fever caused by Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in a rheumatoid arthritis patient treated with rituximab. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Feb;54(2):369-71. Abstract

12. Li H, Jiang JF, Liu W, et al. Human infection with Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012 Oct;18(10):1636-9.Full text  Abstract

13. Nichols Heitman K, Dahlgren FS, Drexler NA, et al. Increasing incidence of Ehrlichiosis in the United States: a summary of national surveillance of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii infections in the United States, 2008-2012. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Jan;94(1):52-60. Abstract

14. Olano JP, Masters E, Hogrefe W, et al. Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, Missouri. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003 Dec;9(12):1579-86. Abstract

15. Standaert SM, Yu T, Scott MA, et al. Primary isolation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis from patients with febrile illnesses: clinical and molecular characteristics. J Infect Dis. 2000 Mar;181(3):1082-8. Abstract

16. Marshall GS, Jacobs RF, Schutze GE, et al. Ehrlichia chaffeensis seroprevalence among children in the southeast and south-central regions of the United States. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Feb;156(2):166-70.Full text  Abstract

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18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ehrlichiosis - epidemiology and statistics. Mar 2020 [internet publication].Full text

19. Yu DH, Li YH, Yoon JS, et al. Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in dogs in South Korea. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Jun;8(3):355-8. Abstract

20. Dahlgren FS, Heitman KN, Drexler NA, et al. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the United States from 2008 to 2012: a summary of national surveillance data. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Jul;93(1):66-72. Abstract

21. Bakken JS, Goellner P, Van Etten M, et al. Seroprevalence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among permanent residents of northwestern Wisconsin. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 Dec;27(6):1491-6. Abstract

22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Anaplasmosis - epidemiology and statistics. Mar 2020 [internet publication].Full text

23. Heyman P, Cochez C, Hofhuis A, et al. A clear and present danger: tick-borne diseases in Europe. Exp Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Jan;8(1):33-50. Abstract

24. Pritt BS. Haemaphysalis longicornis is in the United States and biting humans: where do we go from here? Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 2;70(2):317-8. Abstract

25. Goel R, Westblade LF, Kessler DA, et al. Death from transfusion-transmitted anaplasmosis, New York, USA, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1548-50.Full text  Abstract

26. Sotomayor EA, Popov VL, Feng HM, et al. Animal model of fatal human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:757-769. Abstract

27. Olano JP, Wen G, Feng HM, et al. Histologic, serologic, and molecular analysis of persistent ehrlichiosis in a murine model. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:997-1006. Abstract

28. Ismail N, Soong L, McBride JW, et al. Overproduction of TNF-alpha by CD8+ type 1 cells and down-regulation of IFN-gamma production by CD4+ Th1 cells contribute to toxic shock-like syndrome in an animal model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:1786-1800. Abstract

29. Bunnell JE, Trigiani ER, Srinivas SR, et al. Development and distribution of pathologic lesions are related to immune status and tissue deposition of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent-infected cells in a murine model system. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:546-550.Full text  Abstract

30. Martin ME, Caspersen K, Dumler JS. Immunopathology and ehrlichial propagation are regulated by interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in a murine model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:1881-1888. Abstract

31. Foley JE, Lerche NW, Dumler JS, et al. A simian model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:987-993.Full text  Abstract

32. Zhu B, Nethery KA, Kuriakose JA, et al. Nuclear translocated Ehrlichia chaffeensis ankyrin protein interacts with a specific adenine-rich motif of host promoter and intronic Alu elements. Infection and Immunity. 2009:77:4243-4255Full text  Abstract

33. Garcia-Garcia JC, Barat NC, Trembely SJ, et al. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PLoS Pathog. 2009:5:e1000488.Full text  Abstract

34. Zhang JZ, McBride JW, Yu XJ. L-selectin and E-selectin expressed on monocytes mediating Ehrlichia chaffeensis attachment onto host cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;227:303-309. Abstract

35. Kumagai Y, Cheng Z, Lin M, et al. Biochemical activities of three pairs of Ehrlichia chaffeensis two-component regulatory system proteins involved in inhibition of lysosomal fusion. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5014-5022.Full text  Abstract

36. Lin M, Rikihisa Y. Degradation of p22phox and inhibition of superoxide generation by Ehrlichia chaffeensis in human monocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:861-874. Abstract

37. Banerjee R, Anguita J, Roos D, et al. Cutting edge: infection by the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis prevents the respiratory burst by down-regulating gp91phox. J Immunol. 2000;164:3946-3949.Full text  Abstract

38. Barnewall RE, Rikihisa Y, Lee EH. Ehrlichia chaffeensis inclusions are early endosomes which selectively accumulate transferrin receptor. Infect Immun. 1997;65:1455-1461.Full text  Abstract

39. Barnewall RE, Rikihisa Y. Abrogation of gamma interferon-induced inhibition of Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in human monocytes with iron-transferrin. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4804-4810.Full text  Abstract

40. Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:328-339. Abstract

41. Dumler JS, Dawson JE, Walker DH. Human ehrlichiosis: hematopathology and immunohistologic detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Hum Pathol. 1993 Apr;24(4):391-6. Abstract

42. Sehdev AE, Dumler JS. Hepatic pathology in human monocytic ehrlichiosis: Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;119:859-865. Abstract

43. Walker DH, Dumler JS. Human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses: discovery and diagnosis of emerging tick-borne infections and the critical role of the pathologist. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997 Aug;121(8):785-91. Abstract

44. Dierberg KL, Dumler JS. Lymph node hemophagocytosis in rickettsial diseases: a pathogenetic role for CD8 T lymphocytes in human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME)? BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:121.Full text  Abstract

45. Ismail N, Stevenson HL, Walker DH. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: increased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1846-1856.Full text  Abstract

46. Goodman JL, Nelson CM, Klein MB, et al. Leukocyte infection by the granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent is linked to expression of a selectin ligand. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:407-412.Full text  Abstract

47. Herron MJ, Nelson CM, Larson J, et al. Intracellular parasitism by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis bacterium through the P-selectin ligand, PSGL-1. Science. 2000;288:1653-1656. Abstract

48. Bedner E, Burfeind P, Hsieh TC, et al. Cell cycle effects and induction of apoptosis caused by infection of HL-60 cells with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis pathogen measured by flow and laser scanning cytometry. Cytometry. 1998;33:47-55. Abstract

49. Hsieh TC, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wu JM, et al. Cellular changes and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells infected with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;232:298-303. Abstract

50. Yoshiie K, Kim HY, Mott J, et al. Intracellular infection by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2000;68:1125-1133.Full text  Abstract

51. Lepidi H, Bunnell JE, Martin ME, et al. Comparative pathology, and immunohistology associated with clinical illness after Ehrlichia phagocytophila-group infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:29-37.Full text  Abstract

52. Thomas LD, Hongo I, Bloch KC, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2007 Jun;7(6):1641-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Paddock CD, Folk SM, Shore GM, et al. Infections with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 1;33(9):1586-94. Abstract

54. Safdar N, Love RB, Maki DG. Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in a lung transplant recipient: a review of ehrlichiosis in the immunocompromised patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:320-323.Full text  Abstract

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57. Bakken JS, Krueth J, Wilson-Nordskog C, et al. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. JAMA. 1989 Nov;160(5):803-9. Abstract

58. Horowitz HW, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, McKenna DF, et al. Clinical and laboratory spectrum of culture-proven human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: comparison with culture-negative cases. Clin Infect Dis. 1998;27:1314-1317. Abstract

59. Schutze GE, Jacobs RF. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis in children. Pediatrics. 1997 Jul;100(1):E10.Full text  Abstract

60. Schutze GE. Ehrlichiosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):71-2. Abstract

61. Weil AA, Baron EL, Brown CM, et al. Clinical findings and diagnosis in human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case series from Massachusetts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Mar;87(3):233-9. Abstract

62. Dumler JS, Madigan JE, Pusterla N, et al. Ehrlichioses in humans: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 15;45 Suppl 1:S45-51. Abstract

63. Bakken JS, Dumler JS. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;31(2):554-60. Abstract

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65. Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Horowitz HW, Wormser GP, et al. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: a case series from a medical center in New York State. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 1;125(11):904-8. Abstract

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67. Comer JA, Nicholson WL, Olson JG, et al. Serologic testing for human granulocytic ehrlichiosis at a national referral center. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Mar;37(3):558-64.Full text  Abstract

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70. Olano JP, Walker DH. Human ehrlichioses. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;86(2):375-92. Abstract

71. Bakken JS, Haller I, Riddell D, et al. The serological response of patients infected with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 1;34(1):22-7. Abstract

72. Walls JJ, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Bakken JS, et al. Inter- and intralaboratory comparison of Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent strains for serodiagnosis of HGE by the immunofluorescent-antibody test. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Sep;37(9):2968-73.Full text  Abstract

73. Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis - United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.Full text  Abstract

74. Everett ED, Evans KA, Henry RB, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in adults after tick exposure: diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction. Ann Intern Med. 1994 May 1;120(9):730-5. Abstract

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94. Olano JP, Hogrefe W, Seaton B, et al. Clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and laboratory diagnosis of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis in a commercial laboratory setting. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003 Sep;10(5):891-6.Full text  Abstract

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96. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis: 2008 case definition. January 2008 [internet publication].Full text

97. Brouqui P, Dumler JS, Raoult D, et al. Antigenic characterization of ehrlichiae: protein immunoblotting of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia sennetsu, and Ehrlichia risticii. J Clin Microbiol. 1992 May;30(5):1062-6.Full text  Abstract

98. Chen SM, Dumler JS, Feng HM, et al. Identification of the antigenic constituents of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jan;50(1):52-8. Abstract

99. Chen SM, Cullman LC, Walker DH. Western immunoblotting analysis of the antibody responses of patients with human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis to different strains of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 997 Nov;4(6):731-5.Full text  Abstract

100. Wong SJ, Brady GS, Dumler JS. Serological responses to Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in patients from New York State. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Sep;35(9):2198-205.Full text  Abstract

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102. Unver A, Felek S, Paddock CD, et al. Western blot analysis of sera reactive to human monocytic ehrlichiosis and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agents. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Nov;39(11):3982-6.Full text  Abstract

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104. Luo T, Zhang X, Nicholson WL, et al. Molecular characterization of antibody epitopes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis ankyrin protein 200 and tandem repeat protein 47 and evaluation of synthetic immunodeterminants for serodiagnosis of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jan;17(1):87-97.Full text  Abstract

105. Dumler JS, Brouqui P, Aronson J, et al. Identification of Ehrlichia in human tissue. N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 10;325(15):1109-10. Abstract

106. Yu X, Brouqui P, Dumler JS, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in human tissue by using a species-specific monoclonal antibody. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Dec;31(12):3284-8.Full text  Abstract

107. Bakken JS, Krueth J, Tilden RL, et al. Serological evidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Norway. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996;15:829-832. Abstract

108. Dumler JS, Dotevall L, Gustafson R, et al. A population-based seroepidemiologic study of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis on the west coast of Sweden. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:720-722. Abstract

109. Brouqui P, Dumler JS. Serologic evidence of human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:314-315. Abstract

110. Heo EJ, Park JH, Koo JR, et al. Serologic and molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in Korean patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3082-3085.Full text  Abstract

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113. Heppner DG, Wongsrichanalai C, Walsh DS, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in Thailand. Lancet. 1997;350:785-786. Abstract

114. Thomas RJ, Dumler JS, Carlyon JA. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 22009 Aug;7(6):709-22.Full text  Abstract

115. Branger S, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4822-8.Full text  Abstract

116. Maurin M, Abergel C, Raoult D. DNA gyrase-mediated natural resistance to fluoroquinolones in Ehrlichia spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Jul;45(7):2098-105.Full text  Abstract

117. Maurin M, Bakken JS, Dumler JS. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan;47(1):413-5.Full text  Abstract

118. Rolain JM, Maurin M, Bryskier A, et al. In vitro activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 May;44(5):1391-3.Full text  Abstract

119. Brouqui P, Raoult D. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of the newly recognized agent of ehrlichiosis in humans, Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992 Dec;36(12):2799-803.Full text  Abstract

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121. Horowitz HW, Hsieh TC, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Mar;45(3):786-8.Full text  Abstract

122. Hunfeld KP, Bittner T, Rodel R, et al. New real-time PCR-based method for in vitro susceptibility testing of Anaplasma phagocytophilum against antimicrobial agents. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004 Jun;23(6):563-71. Abstract

123. Dhand A, Nadelman RB, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, et al. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis during pregnancy: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1;45(5):589-93. Abstract

124. Purvis JJ, Edwards MS. Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Sep;19(9):871-4. Abstract

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