Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis


Key articles

Ismail N, Soong L, McBride JW, et al. Overproduction of TNF-alpha by CD8+ type 1 cells and down-regulation of IFN-gamma production by CD4+ Th1 cells contribute to toxic shock-like syndrome in an animal model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:1786-1800. Abstract

Weil AA, Baron EL, Brown CM, et al. Clinical findings and diagnosis in human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case series from Massachusetts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Mar;87(3):233-9. Abstract

Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis - United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.Full text  Abstract

Thomas RJ, Dumler JS, Carlyon JA. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 22009 Aug;7(6):709-22.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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23. Heyman P, Cochez C, Hofhuis A, et al. A clear and present danger: tick-borne diseases in Europe. Exp Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Jan;8(1):33-50. Abstract

24. Pritt BS. Haemaphysalis longicornis is in the United States and biting humans: where do we go from here? Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Jan 2;70(2):317-8. Abstract

25. Goel R, Westblade LF, Kessler DA, et al. Death from transfusion-transmitted anaplasmosis, New York, USA, 2017. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Aug;24(8):1548-50.Full text  Abstract

26. Sotomayor EA, Popov VL, Feng HM, et al. Animal model of fatal human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:757-769. Abstract

27. Olano JP, Wen G, Feng HM, et al. Histologic, serologic, and molecular analysis of persistent ehrlichiosis in a murine model. Am J Pathol. 2004;165:997-1006. Abstract

28. Ismail N, Soong L, McBride JW, et al. Overproduction of TNF-alpha by CD8+ type 1 cells and down-regulation of IFN-gamma production by CD4+ Th1 cells contribute to toxic shock-like syndrome in an animal model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. J Immunol. 2004;172:1786-1800. Abstract

29. Bunnell JE, Trigiani ER, Srinivas SR, et al. Development and distribution of pathologic lesions are related to immune status and tissue deposition of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent-infected cells in a murine model system. J Infect Dis. 1999;180:546-550.Full text  Abstract

30. Martin ME, Caspersen K, Dumler JS. Immunopathology and ehrlichial propagation are regulated by interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 in a murine model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Pathol. 2001;158:1881-1888. Abstract

31. Foley JE, Lerche NW, Dumler JS, et al. A simian model of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999;60:987-993.Full text  Abstract

32. Zhu B, Nethery KA, Kuriakose JA, et al. Nuclear translocated Ehrlichia chaffeensis ankyrin protein interacts with a specific adenine-rich motif of host promoter and intronic Alu elements. Infection and Immunity. 2009:77:4243-4255Full text  Abstract

33. Garcia-Garcia JC, Barat NC, Trembely SJ, et al. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PLoS Pathog. 2009:5:e1000488.Full text  Abstract

34. Zhang JZ, McBride JW, Yu XJ. L-selectin and E-selectin expressed on monocytes mediating Ehrlichia chaffeensis attachment onto host cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2003;227:303-309. Abstract

35. Kumagai Y, Cheng Z, Lin M, et al. Biochemical activities of three pairs of Ehrlichia chaffeensis two-component regulatory system proteins involved in inhibition of lysosomal fusion. Infect Immun. 2006;74:5014-5022.Full text  Abstract

36. Lin M, Rikihisa Y. Degradation of p22phox and inhibition of superoxide generation by Ehrlichia chaffeensis in human monocytes. Cell Microbiol. 2007;9:861-874. Abstract

37. Banerjee R, Anguita J, Roos D, et al. Cutting edge: infection by the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis prevents the respiratory burst by down-regulating gp91phox. J Immunol. 2000;164:3946-3949.Full text  Abstract

38. Barnewall RE, Rikihisa Y, Lee EH. Ehrlichia chaffeensis inclusions are early endosomes which selectively accumulate transferrin receptor. Infect Immun. 1997;65:1455-1461.Full text  Abstract

39. Barnewall RE, Rikihisa Y. Abrogation of gamma interferon-induced inhibition of Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in human monocytes with iron-transferrin. Infect Immun. 1994;62:4804-4810.Full text  Abstract

40. Rikihisa Y. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis: subversive manipulators of host cells. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:328-339. Abstract

41. Dumler JS, Dawson JE, Walker DH. Human ehrlichiosis: hematopathology and immunohistologic detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Hum Pathol. 1993 Apr;24(4):391-6. Abstract

42. Sehdev AE, Dumler JS. Hepatic pathology in human monocytic ehrlichiosis: Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection. Am J Clin Pathol. 2003;119:859-865. Abstract

43. Walker DH, Dumler JS. Human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichioses: discovery and diagnosis of emerging tick-borne infections and the critical role of the pathologist. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997 Aug;121(8):785-91. Abstract

44. Dierberg KL, Dumler JS. Lymph node hemophagocytosis in rickettsial diseases: a pathogenetic role for CD8 T lymphocytes in human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME)? BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:121.Full text  Abstract

45. Ismail N, Stevenson HL, Walker DH. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: increased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Infect Immun. 2006;74:1846-1856.Full text  Abstract

46. Goodman JL, Nelson CM, Klein MB, et al. Leukocyte infection by the granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent is linked to expression of a selectin ligand. J Clin Invest. 1999;103:407-412.Full text  Abstract

47. Herron MJ, Nelson CM, Larson J, et al. Intracellular parasitism by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis bacterium through the P-selectin ligand, PSGL-1. Science. 2000;288:1653-1656. Abstract

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49. Hsieh TC, Aguero-Rosenfeld ME, Wu JM, et al. Cellular changes and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic HL-60 cells infected with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997;232:298-303. Abstract

50. Yoshiie K, Kim HY, Mott J, et al. Intracellular infection by the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent inhibits human neutrophil apoptosis. Infect Immun. 2000;68:1125-1133.Full text  Abstract

51. Lepidi H, Bunnell JE, Martin ME, et al. Comparative pathology, and immunohistology associated with clinical illness after Ehrlichia phagocytophila-group infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2000;62:29-37.Full text  Abstract

52. Thomas LD, Hongo I, Bloch KC, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2007 Jun;7(6):1641-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Paddock CD, Folk SM, Shore GM, et al. Infections with Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii in persons coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 1;33(9):1586-94. Abstract

54. Safdar N, Love RB, Maki DG. Severe Ehrlichia chaffeensis infection in a lung transplant recipient: a review of ehrlichiosis in the immunocompromised patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:320-323.Full text  Abstract

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59. Schutze GE, Jacobs RF. Human monocytic ehrlichiosis in children. Pediatrics. 1997 Jul;100(1):E10.Full text  Abstract

60. Schutze GE. Ehrlichiosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1):71-2. Abstract

61. Weil AA, Baron EL, Brown CM, et al. Clinical findings and diagnosis in human granulocytic anaplasmosis: a case series from Massachusetts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Mar;87(3):233-9. Abstract

62. Dumler JS, Madigan JE, Pusterla N, et al. Ehrlichioses in humans: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 15;45 Suppl 1:S45-51. Abstract

63. Bakken JS, Dumler JS. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2000 Aug;31(2):554-60. Abstract

64. Olano J, Walker DH. Current recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of human ehrlichiosis. Infect Med. 2002;19:318-325.

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70. Olano JP, Walker DH. Human ehrlichioses. Med Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;86(2):375-92. Abstract

71. Bakken JS, Haller I, Riddell D, et al. The serological response of patients infected with the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 1;34(1):22-7. Abstract

72. Walls JJ, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, Bakken JS, et al. Inter- and intralaboratory comparison of Ehrlichia equi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent strains for serodiagnosis of HGE by the immunofluorescent-antibody test. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Sep;37(9):2968-73.Full text  Abstract

73. Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis - United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.Full text  Abstract

74. Everett ED, Evans KA, Henry RB, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in adults after tick exposure: diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction. Ann Intern Med. 1994 May 1;120(9):730-5. Abstract

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78. Bakken JS, Dumler JS. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Oct;1078:236-47. Abstract

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81. Dumler JS, Brouqui P. Molecular diagnosis of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2004 Jul;4(4):559-69. Abstract

82. Gusa AA, Buller RS, Storch GA, et al. Identification of a p28 gene in Ehrlichia ewingii: evaluation of gene for use as a target for a species-specific PCR diagnostic assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Nov;39(11):3871-6.Full text  Abstract

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98. Chen SM, Dumler JS, Feng HM, et al. Identification of the antigenic constituents of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 Jan;50(1):52-8. Abstract

99. Chen SM, Cullman LC, Walker DH. Western immunoblotting analysis of the antibody responses of patients with human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis to different strains of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia canis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 997 Nov;4(6):731-5.Full text  Abstract

100. Wong SJ, Brady GS, Dumler JS. Serological responses to Ehrlichia equi, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Borrelia burgdorferi in patients from New York State. J Clin Microbiol. 1997 Sep;35(9):2198-205.Full text  Abstract

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104. Luo T, Zhang X, Nicholson WL, et al. Molecular characterization of antibody epitopes of Ehrlichia chaffeensis ankyrin protein 200 and tandem repeat protein 47 and evaluation of synthetic immunodeterminants for serodiagnosis of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Jan;17(1):87-97.Full text  Abstract

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106. Yu X, Brouqui P, Dumler JS, et al. Detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in human tissue by using a species-specific monoclonal antibody. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Dec;31(12):3284-8.Full text  Abstract

107. Bakken JS, Krueth J, Tilden RL, et al. Serological evidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Norway. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1996;15:829-832. Abstract

108. Dumler JS, Dotevall L, Gustafson R, et al. A population-based seroepidemiologic study of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis and Lyme borreliosis on the west coast of Sweden. J Infect Dis. 1997;175:720-722. Abstract

109. Brouqui P, Dumler JS. Serologic evidence of human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Israel. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:314-315. Abstract

110. Heo EJ, Park JH, Koo JR, et al. Serologic and molecular detection of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophila (human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent) in Korean patients. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3082-3085.Full text  Abstract

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113. Heppner DG, Wongsrichanalai C, Walsh DS, et al. Human ehrlichiosis in Thailand. Lancet. 1997;350:785-786. Abstract

114. Thomas RJ, Dumler JS, Carlyon JA. Current management of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis and Ehrlichia ewingii ehrlichiosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 22009 Aug;7(6):709-22.Full text  Abstract

115. Branger S, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Dec;48(12):4822-8.Full text  Abstract

116. Maurin M, Abergel C, Raoult D. DNA gyrase-mediated natural resistance to fluoroquinolones in Ehrlichia spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Jul;45(7):2098-105.Full text  Abstract

117. Maurin M, Bakken JS, Dumler JS. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Jan;47(1):413-5.Full text  Abstract

118. Rolain JM, Maurin M, Bryskier A, et al. In vitro activities of telithromycin (HMR 3647) against Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, Rickettsia africae, Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana, Bartonella bacilliformis, and Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000 May;44(5):1391-3.Full text  Abstract

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123. Dhand A, Nadelman RB, Aguero-Rosenfeld M, et al. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis during pregnancy: case series and literature review. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Sep 1;45(5):589-93. Abstract

124. Purvis JJ, Edwards MS. Doxycycline use for rickettsial disease in pediatric patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2000 Sep;19(9):871-4. Abstract

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