Last reviewed:December 2019
Last updated:April  2018



History and exam

Other diagnostic factors

  • asymptomatic
  • co-infection with other parasites
  • developmental delay
  • malnutrition
  • fever
  • cough
  • wheezing
  • dyspnoea
  • haemoptysis
  • hypoxia
  • tachypnoea
  • rhonchi, rales
  • retractions
  • urticarial skin lesions
  • abdominal pain
  • anorexia
  • dyspepsia
  • nausea
  • vomiting
  • diarrhoea
  • constipation
  • abdominal distension
  • reduced or absent bowel sounds
  • hypotension
  • RUQ tenderness
  • hepatomegaly
  • jaundice
  • signs/symptoms of iron deficiency anaemia or kwashiorkor

Risk factors

  • history of travel to or residence in endemic areas
  • children <14 years
  • poverty
  • poor sanitation
  • poor hygiene
  • warm climate
  • contact with pigs

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • stool microscopy
  • chest x-ray
  • abdominal x-ray
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • sputum/gastric aspirate microscopy
  • FBC
  • contrast study
  • barium follow-through
  • abdominal ultrasound
  • abdominal CT
  • endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
Full details

Emerging tests

  • antibodies to Ascaris lumbricoides
  • serum IgE
  • interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13
  • urine-based gas liquid chromatography
Full details

Treatment algorithm


Professor of Pediatrics, Microbial Pathogenesis, and Public Health


Yale World Fellows Program

New Haven



MC declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Michael Cappello would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Samantha H. Johnston and Dr Claire Panosian, previous contributors to this topic. SHJ owns a share in a company (Merck & Co., Inc.) that produces ivermectin, an alternative therapy for ascariasis. CP declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL


Stanford Health Promotion Network

Stanford School of Medicine

Palo Alto



YM declares that he has no competing interests.

Associate Professor

Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology

School of Public Health

Tehran University of Medical Sciences



MBR declares that he has no competing interests.

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