Last reviewed: 31 Jun 2021
Last updated: 27 Jul 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • presence of risk factors
  • infection with other parasites

Other diagnostic factors

  • abdominal pain
  • altered bowel habit
  • weight loss
  • fever (hyperinfection)
  • signs of sepsis (hyperinfection)
  • chronic cough
  • wheezing
  • pruritus or dermatitis
  • larva currens
  • urticaria
  • cutaneous larva migrans
  • apparent drug reaction rash (hyperinfection)
  • other skin complaints
  • symptoms and signs of inflammatory bowel disease

Risk factors

  • soil exposure in or migrants from an endemic area of the world
  • international travellers
  • corticosteroids (risk of hyperinfection)
  • human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection (risk of hyperinfection)
  • impaired immunity
  • solid-organ transplant recipient

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • stool ova and parasites (O&P) examination
  • FBC with differential
  • therapeutic trial with ivermectin (in specific situations)

Investigations to consider

  • sputum O&P examination
  • clinical sample (non-stool or sputum) O&P examination
  • strongyloides IgG serology
  • tissue biopsy

Emerging tests

  • polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

David R. Boulware, MD, MPH, CTropMed
David R. Boulware

Professor of Medicine

Department of Medicine

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis

MN

Disclosures

DRB is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

Peer reviewers

Elizabeth Barnett, MD

Professor

Department of Pediatrics

Boston Medical Center

Boston University

Boston

MA

Disclosures

EB declares that she is on a speaker's bureau for Merck. She is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Linda Nield, MD, FAAP

Professor of Pediatrics

West Virginia University School of Medicine

Morgantown

WV

Disclosures

LN is an author of a reference cited in this topic.

Geoff Gill, MA, MSc, MD, FRCP, DTMH

Professor of International Medicine and Honorary Consultant Physician

Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Liverpool

UK

Disclosures

GG declares that he has no competing interests.

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