Last reviewed: 8 Apr 2021
Last updated: 11 Feb 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment
  • Mild neurocognitive disorder (MND)
  • Antiretroviral adverse effects
  • Toxoplasmosis encephalitis/abscess
  • Cryptococcal meningitis/abscess
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis meningitis/abscess
  • Depression
  • Substance use
  • Alcohol-use disorder
  • Hepatitis C co-infection
  • Hepatitis B co-infection
  • Hypogonadism

Uncommon

  • HIV-associated dementia (HAD)
  • Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome
  • Neurosyphilis
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy
  • Herpes virus encephalitis
  • Varicella zoster encephalitis
  • Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Stroke
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Adrenal insufficiency

Contributors

Associate Professor of Psychiatry/Consultant Psychiatrist

Chronic Viral Illness Service of the McGill University Health Centre

McGill University

Montreal

Canada

Disclosures

MJB declares that she has no competing interests.

Clinical Assistant Professor

University of British Columbia

Division of AIDS

Faculty of Medicine

Vancouver

Canada

Disclosures

MH has received honoraria for speaking engagements and advisory boards from Gilead and Merck. These have been paid to his institution. 

Clinical Assistant Professor

University of British Columbia

Department of Family Practice

Faculty of Medicine

Vancouver

Canada

Disclosures

MH has served as a consultant and/or advisory board member for Gilead Sciences Canada Inc., Merck Canada Inc., and ViiV Healthcare. Honoraria are administered by the institution.

Dr Marie-Josée Brouillette, Dr Mark Hull, and Dr Marianne Harris would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Martin Repetto, the previous contributor to this topic. MR declares that he has no competing interests.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Associate Professor of Neurology

Harborview Medical Center

Seattle

WA

Disclosures

JRZ has received funding from NIH for research.

Consultant in Infectious Diseases

Nuffield Department of Experimental Medicine

University of Oxford

Oxford

UK

Disclosures

JF has received the MRC Clinician Scientist award.

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