There is marked geographic variation in the frequency of HCL. In the US, HCL is relatively uncommon, accounting for 2% of all leukaemia cases or 600 to 800 new patients diagnosed per year. HCL is more common in white men, with a male-to-female ratio of 5:1, and a median age of occurrence of 52 years. The incidence of HCL in the UK is not established but has been reported to be 2.9 per million per year in parts of England and Wales.[2][5][6][7]

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