Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon

References

Key articles

Rubin DT, Ananthakrishnan AN, Siegel CA, et al. ACG clinical guideline: ulcerative colitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;114(3):384-413.Full text  Abstract

McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):987-94.Full text  Abstract

Kelly CR, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, et al. ACG clinical guidelines: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1124-47.Full text  Abstract

Lightner AL, Vogel JD, Carmichael JC, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020 Aug;63(8):1028-52.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Marshak RH, Lester LJ. Megacolon a complication of ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology. 1950 Dec;16(4):768-72. Abstract

2. Grieco MB, Bordan DL, Geiss AC, et al. Toxic megacolon complicating Crohn's colitis. Ann Surg. 1980 Jan;191(1):75-80.Full text  Abstract

3. Greenstein AJ, Sachar DB, Gibas A, et al. Outcome of toxic dilatation in ulcerative and Crohn's colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1985 Apr;7(2):137-43. Abstract

4. Ausch C, Madoff RD, Gnant M, et al. Aetiology and surgical management of toxic megacolon. Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar;8(3):195-201. Abstract

5. Rubin DT, Ananthakrishnan AN, Siegel CA, et al. ACG clinical guideline: ulcerative colitis in adults. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar;114(3):384-413.Full text  Abstract

6. Dallal RM, Harbrecht BG, Boujoukas AJ, et al. Fulminant Clostridium difficile: an underappreciated and increasing cause of death and complications. Ann Surg. 2002 Mar;235(3):363-72.Full text  Abstract

7. Autenrieth DM, Baumgart DC. Toxic megacolon. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Mar;18(3):584-91.Full text  Abstract

8. Doshi R, Desai J, Shah Y, et al. Incidence, features, in-hospital outcomes and predictors of in-hospital mortality associated with toxic megacolon hospitalizations in the United States. Intern Emerg Med. 2018 Sep;13(6):881-7. Abstract

9. Bellary SV, Isaacs P. Toxic megacolon (TM) due to Salmonella. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1990 Oct;12(5):605-7. Abstract

10. Tiao MM, Huang HC, Huang CB, et al. Toxic megacolon in Salmonella colitis: report of two cases. Acta Paediatr Taiwan. 2000 Jan-Feb;41(1):43-6. Abstract

11. Upadhyay AK, Neely JA. Toxic megacolon and perforation caused by Shigella. Br J Surg. 1989 Nov;76(11):1217. Abstract

12. Anderson JB, Tanner AH, Brodribb AJ. Toxic megacolon due to Campylobacter colitis. Int J Colorectal Dis. 1986 Jan;1(1):58-9. Abstract

13. McGregor A, Brown M, Thway K, et al. Fulminant amoebic colitis following loperamide use. J Travel Med. 2007 Jan-Feb;14(1):61-2.Full text  Abstract

14. Beaugerie L, Ngo Y, Goujard F, et al. Etiology and management of toxic megacolon in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Gastroenterology. 1994 Sep;107(3):858-63. Abstract

15. Cooper HS, Raffensperger EC, Jonas L, et al. Cytomegalovirus inclusions in patients with ulcerative colitis and toxic dilation requiring colonic resection. Gastroenterology. 1977 Jun;72(6):1253-6. Abstract

16. Criscuoli V, Rizzuto MR, Gallo E, et al. Toxic megacolon and human Cytomegalovirus in a series of severe ulcerative colitis patients. J Clin Virol. 2015 May;66:103-6. Abstract

17. Present DH. Toxic megacolon. Med Clin North Am. 1993 Sep;77(5):1129-48. Abstract

18. Atherton LD, Leib ES, Kaye MD. Toxic megacolon associated with methotrexate therapy. Gastroenterology. 1984 Jun;86(6):1583-8. Abstract

19. Lee FY, Lin HY, Pan S, et al. Gold-induced fulminant colitis in a patient with psoriatic arthritis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1988 Feb;10(1):116-7. Abstract

20. de Gara CJ, Gagic N, Arnold A, et al. Toxic megacolon associated with anticancer chemotherapy. Can J Surg. 1991 Aug;34(4):339-41. Abstract

21. Gan SI, Beck PL. A new look at toxic megacolon: an update and review of incidence, etiology, pathogenesis, and management. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Nov;98(11):2363-71. Abstract

22. Sheth SG, LaMont JT. Toxic megacolon. Lancet. 1998 Feb 14;351(9101):509-13. Abstract

23. Solomon K. The host immune response to Clostridium difficile infection. Ther Adv Infect Dis. 2013 Feb;1(1):19-35.Full text  Abstract

24. McDonald LC, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults and children: 2017 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA). Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 19;66(7):987-94.Full text  Abstract

25. Imbriaco M, Balthazar EJ. Toxic megacolon: role of CT in evaluation and detection of complications. Clin Imaging. 2001 Sep-Oct;25(5):349-54. Abstract

26. Strong SA. Management of acute colitis and toxic megacolon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2010 Dec;23(4):274-84.Full text  Abstract

27. Jalan KN, Sircus W, Card WI, et al. An experience of ulcerative colitis. I. Toxic dilation in 55 cases. Gastroenterology. 1969 Jul;57(1):68-82. Abstract

28. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

29. Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AOMRC). Statement on the initial antimicrobial treatment of sepsis. May 2022 [internet publicaiton].Full text

30. Kelly CR, Fischer M, Allegretti JR, et al. ACG clinical guidelines: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of Clostridioides difficile infections. Am J Gastroenterol. 2021 Jun 1;116(6):1124-47.Full text  Abstract

31. De Simone B, Davies J, Chouillard E, et al. WSES-AAST guidelines: management of inflammatory bowel disease in the emergency setting. World J Emerg Surg. 2021 May 11;16(1):23.Full text  Abstract

32. van Prehn J, Reigadas E, Vogelzang EH, et al. European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases: 2021 update on the treatment guidance document for Clostridioides difficile infection in adults. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Dec;27(2 suppl):S1-21.Full text  Abstract

33. Klobuka AJ, Markelov A. Current status of surgical treatment for fulminant clostridium difficile colitis. World J Gastrointest Surg. 2013 Jun 27;5(6):167-72.Full text  Abstract

34. Teeuwen PH, Stommel MW, Bremers AJ, et al. Colectomy in patients with acute colitis: a systematic review. J Gastrointest Surg. 2009 Apr;13(4):676-86. Abstract

35. Lightner AL, Vogel JD, Carmichael JC, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons clinical practice guidelines for the surgical management of Crohn's disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020 Aug;63(8):1028-52.Full text  Abstract

36. NHS Improvement. Patient Safety review and response: April to September 2018. March 2019 [internet publication].Full text

37. NHS England. Patient safety alert on placement devices for nasogastric tube insertion. December 2019 [internet publication].Full text

38. Lamb CA, Kennedy NA, Raine T, et al. British Society of Gastroenterology consensus guidelines on the management of inflammatory bowel disease in adults. Gut. 2019 Dec;68(3 suppl):s1-106.Full text  Abstract

39. Neal MD, Alverdy JC, Hall DE, et al. Diverting loop ileostomy and colonic lavage: an alternative to total abdominal colectomy for the treatment of severe, complicated Clostridium difficile associated disease. Ann Surg. 2011 Sep;254(3):423-7. Abstract

40. Pola S, Patel D, Ramamoorthy S, et al. Strategies for the care of adults hospitalized for active ulcerative colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Dec;10(12):1315-25.Full text  Abstract

41. Actis GC, Ottobrelli A, Pera A, et al. Continuously infused cyclosporine at low dose is sufficient to avoid emergency colectomy in acute attacks of ulcerative colitis without the need for high-dose steroids. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1993 Jul;17(1):10-3. Abstract

42. van Geenen EJ, Sachar DB. Infliximab in Crohn's disease-associated toxic megacolon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2012 Apr;46(4):321-3. Abstract

43. Sinagra E, Orlando A, Renna S, et al. Is really megacolon a contraindication to infliximab in Crohn's disease? Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2013 Dec;76(4):442-4. Abstract

44. Narabayashi K, Inoue T, Sakanaka T, et al. Oral tacrolimus for megacolon in patients with severe ulcerative colitis. Intern Med. 2014;53(16):1755-8.Full text  Abstract

45. Hayashi R, Ueno Y, Tanaka S, et al. Two cases of severe ulcerative colitis with colonic dilatation resolved with tacrolimus therapy. Case Rep Gastroenterol. 2015 Jul 31;9(2):272-7.Full text  Abstract

46. Mitsuyama K, Sata M. Therapeutic leukocytapheresis in inflammatory bowel disease: clinical efficacy and mechanisms of action. Cytotherapy. 2009;11(2):229-37. Abstract

47. Kanai T, Hibi T, Watanabe M. The logics of leukocytapheresis as a natural biological therapy for inflammatory bowel disease. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2006 May;6(5):453-66. Abstract

48. Yokoyama Y, Matsuoka K, Kobayashi T, et al. A large-scale, prospective, observational study of leukocytapheresis for ulcerative colitis: treatment outcomes of 847 patients in clinical practice. J Crohns Colitis. 2014 Sep;8(9):981-91.Full text  Abstract

49. Trudel JL, Deschenes M, Mayrand S, et el. Toxic megacolon complicating pseudomembranous enterocolitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995 Oct;38(10):1033-8. Abstract

50. Grant CS, Dozois RR. Toxic megacolon: ultimate fate of patients after successful medical management. Am J Surg. 1984 Jan;147(1):106-10. Abstract

51. D'Amico C, Vitale A, Angriman I, et al. Early surgery for the treatment of toxic megacolon. Digestion. 2005;72(2-3):146-9. Abstract

52. Berman L, Carling T, Fitzgerald TN, et al. Defining surgical therapy for pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008 May-Jun;42(5):476-80. Abstract

53. Perera AD, Akbari RP, Cowher MS, et al. Colectomy for fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: predictors of mortality. Am Surg. 2010 Apr;76(4):418-21. Abstract

54. Osman KA, Ahmed MH, Hamad MA, et al. Emergency colectomy for fulminant Clostridium difficile colitis: striking the right balance. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2011 Oct;46(10):1222-7. Abstract

55. Bernstein CN, Ng SC, Lakatos PL, et al; Epidemiology and Natural History Task Force of the International Organization of the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. A review of mortality and surgery in ulcerative colitis: milestones of the seriousness of the disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Aug;19(9):2001-10.Full text  Abstract

56. Borgia G, Maraolo AE, Foggia M, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation for Clostridium difficile infection: back to the future. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2015 Jul;15(7):1001-14. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer