Gynaecomastia

References

Key articles

Nuttall FQ. Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Feb;48(2):338-40. Abstract

Carlson HE. Approach to the patient with gynecomastia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):15-21.Full text  Abstract

Bhasin S, Brito JP, Cunningham GR, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 1;103(5):1715-44.Full text  Abstract

American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Evaluation of the symptomatic male breast. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Kanakis GA, Nordkap L, Bang AK, et al. EAA clinical practice guidelines-gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology. 2019 Nov;7(6):778-93.Full text  Abstract

Soliman AT, De Sanctis V, Yassin M. Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta Biomed. 2017 Aug 23;88(2):204-213.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Niewoehner CB, Schorer AE. Gynaecomastia and breast cancer in men. BMJ. 2008 Mar 29;336(7646):709-13. Abstract

2. Simon BE, Hoffman S, Kahn S. Classification and surgical correction of gynecomastia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1973 Jan;51(1):48-52. Abstract

3. McKiernan JF, Hull D. Breast development in the newborn. Arch Dis Child. 1981 Jul;56(7):525-9.Full text  Abstract

4. Nydick M, Bustos J, Dale JH Jr, et al. Gynecomastia in adolescent boys. JAMA. 1961 Nov 4;178:449-54. Abstract

5. Nuttall FQ. Gynecomastia as a physical finding in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1979 Feb;48(2):338-40. Abstract

6. Niewoehner CB, Nuttall FQ. Gynecomastia in a hospitalized male population. Am J Med. 1984 Oct;77(4):633-8. Abstract

7. Anderson JA, Gram JB. Male breast at autopsy. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand. 1982 May;90(3):191-7. Abstract

8. Travison TG, Araujo AB, Kupelian V, et al. The relative contributions of aging, health and lifestyle factors to serum testosterone decline in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb;92(2):549-55.Full text  Abstract

9. Harman SM, Metter EJ, Tobin JD, et al. Longitudinal effects of aging on serum total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Feb;86(2):724-31.Full text  Abstract

10. Braunstein GD. Gynecomastia. New Engl J Med. 1993 Feb 18;328(7):490-95. Abstract

11. Carlson HE. Approach to the patient with gynecomastia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):15-21.Full text  Abstract

12. Deepinder F, Braunstein GD. Drug-induced gynecomastia: an evidence-based review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2012 Sep;11(5):779-95. Abstract

13. Nuttall FQ, Warrier RS, Gannon MC. Gynecomastia and drugs: a critical evaluation of the literature. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 May;71(5):569-78.Full text  Abstract

14. Shozu M, Sebastian S, Takayama K, et al. Estrogen excess associated with novel gain-of-function mutations affecting the aromatase gene. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 8;348(19):1855-65. Abstract

15. Dobs A, Darkes MJ. Incidence and management of gynecomastia in men treated for prostate cancer. J Urol. 2005 Nov;174(5):1737-42. Abstract

16. Schulman C, Pommerville P, Hofner K, et al. Long-term therapy with the dual 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dusteride is well tolerated in men with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia. BJU Int. 2006 Jan;97(1):73-9. Abstract

17. Jensen RT, Collen MJ, Pandol SJ, et al. Cimetidine-induced impotence and breast changes in patients with gastric hypersecretory states. N Engl J Med. 1983 Apr 14;308(15):883-7. Abstract

18. Thompson DF, Carter JR. Drug-induced gynecomastia. Pharmacotherapy. 1993 Jan-Feb;13(1):37-45. Abstract

19. Finkelstein JS, McCully WF, MacLaughlin DT, et al. The mortician's mystery: gynecomastia and reversible hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in an embalmer. N Engl J Med. 1988 Apr 14;318(15):961-5. Abstract

20. Harrington JM, Stein GF, Rivera RO, et al. The occupational hazards of formulating oral contraceptives: a survey of plant employees. Arch Environ Health. 1978 Jan-Feb;33(1):12-5. Abstract

21. Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, et al. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 1;356(5):479-85.Full text  Abstract

22. Durmaz E, Özmert EN, Erkekoğlu P, et al. Plasma phthalate levels in pubertal gynecomastia. Pediatrics. 2010 Jan;125(1):e122-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Huffman DH, Kampmann JP, Hignite CE, et al. Gynecomastia induced in normal males by spironolactone. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1978 Oct;24(4):465-73. Abstract

24. Bagatell CJ, Bremner WJ. Androgens in men: uses and abuses. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 14;334(11):707-14. Abstract

25. Perry PJ, Lund BC, Deninger MJ, et al. Anabolic steroid use in weight lifters and body builders: an internet survey of drug utilization. Clin J Sport Med. 2005 Sep;15(5):326-30. Abstract

26. Friedl KE, Yesalis CE. Self-treatment of gynecomastia in bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids. Physician Sportsmed. 1989 Mar;17(3):67-79. Abstract

27. Mira JA, Lozano F, Santos J, et al. Gynaecomastia in HIV-infected men on highly active antiretroviral therapy: association with efavirenz and didanosine treatment. Antivir Ther. 2004 Aug;9(4):511-17. Abstract

28. Dobs AS, Meikle AW, Arver S, et al. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of a permeation-enhanced testosterone transdermal system in comparison with bi-weekly injections of testosterone enanthate for the treatment of hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999 Oct;84(10):3469-78.Full text  Abstract

29. Boccardo F, Rubagotti A, Battaglia M, et al. Evaluation of tamoxifen and anastrozole in the prevention of gynecomastia and breast pain induced by bicalutamide monotherapy of prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Feb 1;23(4):808-15.Full text  Abstract

30. Salzstein D, Sieber P, Morris T, et al. Prevention and management of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia and breast pain: randomized endocrinologic and clinical studies with tamoxifen and anastrozole. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2005;8(1):75-83.Full text  Abstract

31. Fradet Y, Egerdie B, Andersen M, et al. Tamoxifen as prophylaxis for prevention of gynaecomastia and breast pain associated with bicalutamide 150 mg monotherapy in patients with prostate cancer: a randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Eur Urol. 2007 Jul;52(1):106-14. Abstract

32. iani GA, Bernardes da Silva LG, Stefano EJ. Prevention of gynecomastia and breast pain caused by androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer: tamoxifen or radiotherapy? Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2012 Jul 15;83(4):e519-24. Abstract

33. Kunath F, Keck B, Antes G, et al. Tamoxifen for the management of breast events induced by non-steroidal antiandrogens in patients with prostate cancer: a systematic review. BMC Med. 2012 Aug 28;10:96.Full text  Abstract

34. Lawrence SE, Faught KA, Vethamuthu J, et al. Beneficial effects of raloxifene and tamoxifen in the treatment of pubertal gynecomastia. J Pediatr. 2004 Jul;145(1):71-6. Abstract

35. Tyrrell CJ, Payne H, Tammela TL, et al. Prophylactic breast irradiation with a single dose of electron beam radiotherapy (10 Gy) significantly reduces the incidence of bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Int J Rad Oncol Biol Phys. 2004 Oct 1;60(2):476-83. Abstract

36. Perdonà S, Autorino R, De Placido S, et al. Efficacy of tamoxifen and radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of gynecomastia and breast pain caused by bicalutamide in prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2005 May;6(5):295-300. Abstract

37. Bhasin S, Brito JP, Cunningham GR, et al. Testosterone therapy in men with hypogonadism: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 May 1;103(5):1715-44.Full text  Abstract

38. American College of Radiology. ACR Appropriateness Criteria. Evaluation of the symptomatic male breast. 2018 [internet publication].Full text

39. Kanakis GA, Nordkap L, Bang AK, et al. EAA clinical practice guidelines-gynecomastia evaluation and management. Andrology. 2019 Nov;7(6):778-93.Full text  Abstract

40. Narula HS, Carlson HE. Gynaecomastia-pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;10(11):684-98. Abstract

41. Janes SE, Lengyel JA, Singh S, et al. Needle core biopsy for the assessment of unilateral breast masses in men. Breast. 2006 Apr;15(2):273-5. Abstract

42. Hines SL, Tan WW, Yasrebi M, et al. The role of mammography in male patients with breast symptoms. Mayo Clin Proc. 2007 Mar;82(3):297-300. Abstract

43. Gao Y, Goldberg JE, Young TK, et al. Breast cancer screening in high-risk men: a 12-year longitudinal observational study of male breast imaging utilization and outcomes. Radiology. 2019 Nov;293(2):282-91.Full text  Abstract

44. McDermott MT, Hofeldt FD, Kidd GS. Tamoxifen therapy for painful, idiopathic gynecomastia. South Med J. 1990 Nov;83(11):1283-5. Abstract

45. Hanavadi S, Banerjee D, Monypenny IJ, et al. The role of tamoxifen in the management of gynaecomastia. Breast. 2006 Apr;15(2):276-80. Abstract

46. Mannu GS, Sudul M, Bettencourt-Silva JH, et al. Role of tamoxifen in idiopathic gynecomastia: A 10-year prospective cohort study. Breast J. 2018 Nov;24(6):1043-5. Abstract

47. Ting AC, Chow LW, Leung YF. Comparison of tamoxifen with danazol in the management of idiopathic gynecomastia. Am Surg. 2000 Jan;66(1):38-40. Abstract

48. Buckle R. Danazol therapy in gynaecomastia; recent experience and indications for therapy. Postgrad Med J. 1979;55 Suppl 5:71-8. Abstract

49. Babigian A, Silverman RT. Management of gynecomastia due to use of anabolic steroids in bodybuilders. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Jan;107(1):240-42. Abstract

50. Fruhstorfer BH, Malata CM. A systematic approach to the surgical treatment of gynaecomastia. Br J Plast Surg. 2003 Apr;56(3):237-46. Abstract

51. Persichetti P, Berloco M, Casadei RM, et al. Gynecomastia and the complete circumareolar approach in the surgical management of skin redundancy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Apr 1;107(4):948-54. Abstract

52. Hodgson EL, Fruhstorfer BH, Malata CM. Ultrasonic liposuction in the treatment of gynecomastia. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Aug;116(2):646-53. Abstract

53. Gabra HO, Morabito A, Bianchi A, et al. Gynaecomastia in the adolescent: a surgically relevant condition. Eur J Pediatr Surg. 2004 Feb;14(1):3-6. Abstract

54. Colombo-Benkmann M, Buse B, Stern J, et al. Indications for and results of surgical therapy for male gynecomastia. Am J Surg. 1999 Jul;178(1):60-3. Abstract

55. Trelles MA, Mordon SR, Bonanad E, et al. Laser-assisted lipolysis in the treatment of gynecomastia: a prospective study in 28 patients. Lasers Med Sci. 2013 Feb;28(2):375-82. Abstract

56. Bedognetti D, Rubagotti A, Conti G, et al. An open, randomised, multicentre, phase 3 trial comparing the efficacy of two tamoxifen schedules in preventing gynaecomastia induced by bicalutamide monotherapy in prostate cancer patients. Eur Urol. 2010 Feb;57(2):238-45. Abstract

57. Serretta V, Altieri V, Morgia G, et al. A randomized trial comparing tamoxifen therapy vs. tamoxifen prophylaxis in bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2012 Sep;10(3):174-9. Abstract

58. Van Poppel H, Tyrrell CJ, Haustermans K, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of radiotherapy as treatment for bicalutamide-induced gynaecomastia and breast pain in prostate cancer. Eur Urol. 2005 May;47(5):587-92. Abstract

59. Ozen H, Akyol F, Toktas G, et al. Is prophylactic breast radiotherapy necessary in all patients with prostate cancer and gynecomastia and/or breast pain? J Urol. 2010 Aug;184(2):519-24. Abstract

60. Tunio MA, Al-Asiri M, Al-Amro A, et al. Optimal prophylactic and definitive therapy for bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia: results of a meta-analysis. Curr Oncol. 2012 Aug;19(4):e280-8.Full text  Abstract

61. Soliman AT, De Sanctis V, Yassin M. Management of adolescent gynecomastia: an update. Acta Biomed. 2017 Aug 23;88(2):204-213.Full text  Abstract

62. Mieritz MG, Rakêt LL, Hagen CP, et al. A longitudinal study of growth, sex steroids, and IGF-1 in boys with physiological gynecomastia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Oct;100(10):3752-9.Full text  Abstract

63. Nuzzi LC, Cerrato FE, Erickson CR, et al. Psychosocial impact of adolescent gynecomastia: a prospective case-control study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Apr;131(4):890-96. Abstract

64. Lapid O, van Wingerden JJ, Perlemuter L. Tamoxifen therapy for the management of pubertal gynecomastia: a systematic review. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(9-10):803-7. Abstract

65. Eberle AJ, Sparrow JT, Keenan BS. Treatment of persistent pubertal gynecomastia with dihydrotestosterone heptanoate. J Pediatr. 1986 Jul;109(1):144-9. Abstract

66. Plourde PV, Kulin HE, Santner SJ. Clomiphene in the treatment of adolescent gynecomastia. Am J Dis Child. 1983 Nov;137(11):1080-2. Abstract

67. Koshy JC, Goldberg JS, Wolfswinkel EM, et al. Breast cancer incidence in adolescent males undergoing subcutaneous mastectomy for gynecomastia: is pathologic examination justified? A retrospective and literature review. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Jan;127(1):1-7. Abstract

68. Einav-Bachar R, Phillip M, Aurbach-Klipper Y, et al. Prepubertal gynaecomastia: aetiology, course and outcome. Clin Endocrinol. 2004 Jul;61(1):55-60. Abstract

69. Benveniste O, Simon A, Herson S. Successful percutaneous dihydrotestosterone treatment of gynecomastia occurring during highly active retroviral therapy: four cases and a review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis. 2001 Sep 15;33(6):891-3.Full text  Abstract

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