Assessment of hoarseness and dysphonia

References

Key articles

Stachler RJ, Francis DO, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Hoarseness (Dysphonia) (Update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Mar;158(1_suppl):S1-S42.Full text  Abstract

Verdolini K, Rosen C, Branski R, eds. Classification manual for voice disorders: I. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 2005.

Morrison M, Rammage L, Emami AJ. The irritable larynx syndrome. J Voice. 1975 Apr;79(4):58-60. Abstract

Colton RH, Casper JK, Leonard R. Understanding voice problems: a physiological perspective for diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

Mirza N. Localized inflammatory disorders of the larynx. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006: 272.

Hirano M, Bless DM. Videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group; 1993.

Treole K, Trudeau MD, Forrest LA. Endoscopic and stroboscopic description of adults with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. J Voice. 1999 Mar;13(1):143-52. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Stachler RJ, Francis DO, Schwartz SR, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline: Hoarseness (Dysphonia) (Update). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Mar;158(1_suppl):S1-S42.Full text  Abstract

2. Roy N. Functional dysphonia. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Jun;11(3):144-8. Abstract

3. Morrison M. Pattern recognition in muscle misuse voice disorders: how I do it. J Voice. 1997 Mar;11(1):108-14. Abstract

4. Altman KW, Atkinson C, Lazarus C. Current and emerging concepts in muscle tension dysphonia: a 30-month review. J Voice. 2005 Jun;19(2):261-7. Abstract

5. Roy N, Bless DM, Heisey D. Personality and voice disorders: a multitrait-multidisorder analysis. J Voice. 2000 Dec;14(4):521-48. Abstract

6. Roy N, Bless DM, Heisey D. Personality and voice disorders: a superfactor trait analysis. J Speech Lang Hear Res 2000 Jun;43(3):749-68. Abstract

7. Verdolini K, Rosen C, Branski R, eds. Classification manual for voice disorders: I. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 2005.

8. Altman KW. Vocal fold masses. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Oct;40(5):1091-108. Abstract

9. Andrianopoulos MV, Gallivan GJ, Gallivan KH. PVCM, PVCD, EPL, and irritable larynx syndrome: what are we talking about and how do we treat it? J Voice. 2000 Dec;14(4):607-18. Abstract

10. Maschka DA, Bauman NM, McCray PB Jr, et al. A classification scheme for paradoxical vocal cord motion. Laryngoscope. 1997 Nov;107(11 Pt 1):1429-35. Abstract

11. Mathers-Schmidt BA. Paradoxical vocal fold motion: a tutorial on a complex disorder and the speech-language pathologist's role. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2001;10(2):111-25.

12. Altman KW, Simpson CB, Amin MR, et al. Cough and paradoxical vocal fold motion. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002 Dec;127(6):501-11. Abstract

13. Morrison M, Rammage L, Emami AJ. The irritable larynx syndrome. J Voice. 1975 Apr;79(4):58-60. Abstract

14. Dworkin JP. Laryngitis: types, causes, and treatments. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2008 Apr;41(2):419-36. Abstract

15. Johns MM. Update on the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of vocal fold nodules, polyps, and cysts. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2003 Dec;11(6):456-61. Abstract

16. Colton RH, Casper JK, Leonard R. Understanding voice problems: a physiological perspective for diagnosis and treatment. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2006.

17. Dietrich M, Verdolini Abbott K, Gartner-Schmidt J, et al. The frequency of perceived stress, anxiety, and depression in patients with common pathologies affecting voice. J Voice. 2008 Jul;22(4):472-88. Abstract

18. Mirza N. Localized inflammatory disorders of the larynx. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006: 272.

19. Pontes P, Brasolotto A, Behlau M. Glottic characteristics and voice complaint in the elderly. J Voice. 2005 Mar;19(1):84-94. Abstract

20. Woodson G. Management of neurologic disorders of the larynx. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008 May;117(5):317-26. Abstract

21. Mau T, Courey MS. Voice and speech abnormalities in systemic neurodegenerative disorders. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006.

22. Meyer T, Sulica L, Blitzer A. Vocal fold paralysis. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006:217-35.

23. Trail M, Fox C, Ramig LO, et al. Speech treatment for Parkinson's disease. NeuroRehabilitation. 2005;20(3):205-21. Abstract

24. Sulica L, Louis E. Essential voice tremor. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006:245-53.

25. Blumin JH, Berke GS. Spasmodic dsyphonia. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006.

26. Hoffman HT, Karnell LH, Funk GF, et al. The National Cancer Data Base report on cancer of the head and neck. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1998 Sep;124(9):951-62.Full text  Abstract

27. Hoffman HT, Overholt E, Karnell M, et al. Vocal process granuloma. Head Neck. 2001 Dec;23(12):1061-74. Abstract

28. Hunt JP, McWhorter AJ. Malignant neoplasms of the larynx. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006.

29. Watts SL, Brewer EE, Fry TL. Human papillomavirus DNA types in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1991 Jun;71(6):701-7. Abstract

30. Galli J, Cammarota G, Volante M, et al. Laryngeal carcinoma and laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2006 Oct;26(5):260-3. Abstract

31. Vaezi MF, Qadeer MA, Lopez R, et al. Laryngeal cancer and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a case-control study. Am J Med. 2006 Sep;119(9):768-76. Abstract

32. Isenberg JS, Crozier DL, Dailey SH. Institutional and comprehensive review of laryngeal leukoplakia. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008 Jan;117(1):74-9. Abstract

33. Sinard RJ, Netterville JL, Ossoff RH. Squamous cell cancer of the larynx. In: Ossoff RH, Shapshay SM, Woodson G, et al, eds. The larynx. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003: 337.

34. Kuan WS, Lee SK, Suat Ooi SB. Chronic voice hoarseness: when is it an emergency? Eur J Emerg Med. 2007 Dec;14(6):360-2. Abstract

35. Bando H, Nishio T, Bamba H, et al. Vocal fold paralysis as a sign of chest diseases: a 15-year retrospective study. World J Surg. 2006 Mar;30(3):293-8. Abstract

36. Derkay CS, Wiatrak B. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis: a review. Laryngoscope. 2008 Jul;118(7):1236-47. Abstract

37. Netterville JL, Billante CR. The immobile vocal cord. In: Ossoff RH, Shapshay SM, Woodson G, et al, eds. The larynx. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003: 269.

38. Davids T, Klein AM, Johns MM 3rd. Current dysphonia trends in patients over the age of 65: is vocal atrophy becoming more prevalent? Laryngoscope. 2012 Feb;122(2):332-5. Abstract

39. Cohen SM, Kim J, Roy N, et al. Direct health care costs of laryngeal diseases and disorders. Laryngoscope. 2012 Jul;122(7):1582-8. Abstract

40. Cohen SM, Kim J, Roy N, et al. The impact of laryngeal disorders on work-related dysfunction. Laryngoscope. 2012 Jul;122(7):1589-94. Abstract

41. Cohen SM, Kim J, Roy N, et al. Prevalence and causes of dysphonia in a large treatment-seeking population. Laryngoscope. 2012 Feb;122(2):343-8. Abstract

42. Paul BC, Chen S, Sridharan S, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of history, laryngoscopy, and stroboscopy. Laryngoscope. 2013 Jan;123(1):215-9. Abstract

43. Sulica L. Hoarseness. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Jun;137(6):616-9. Abstract

44. Sepić T, Pankas J, Grubesić A, et al. Basics of voice dysfunction - etiology and prevention of voice damage. Coll Antropol. 2011 Sep;35 Suppl 2:97-101. Abstract

45. Cohen SM, Pitman MJ, Noordzij JP, et al. Evaluation of dysphonic patients by general otolaryngologists. J Voice. 2012 Nov;26(6):772-8. Abstract

46. Cohen SM, Pitman MJ, Noordzij JP, et al. Management of dysphonic patients by otolaryngologists. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2012 Aug;147(2):289-94. Abstract

47. Gibbins NE, Harries ML. Modern day voice clinic. Otorhinolaryngologist. 2011 Jan;4(1):14-20.

48. Milstein CF, Hicks DM. Clinical and instrumental evaluation of the voice patient. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006:98.

49. Belafsky PC, Postma GN, Koufman JA. Validity and reliability of the reflux symptom index (RSI). J Voice. 2002 Jun;16(2):274-7. Abstract

50. Ylitalo R. Reflux and its impact on laryngology. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006.

51. Darley FL, Aronson AE, Brown JR. Motor speech disorders. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1975.

52. Bastian RW, Richardson BE. Postintubation phonatory insufficiency: an elusive diagnosis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2001 Jun;124(6):625-33. Abstract

53. Johnstone T, van Reekum CM, Oakes TR, et al. The voice of emotion: an FMRI study of neural responses to angry and happy vocal expressions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2006 Dec;1(3):242-9.Full text  Abstract

54. Toivanen J, Waaramaa T, Alku P, et al. Emotions in [a]: a perceptual and acoustic study. Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2006;31(1):43-8. Abstract

55. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Suspected neurological conditions: recognition and referral. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

56. Epstein JB, Gorsky M, Cabay RJ, et al. Screening for and diagnosis of oral premalignant lesions and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: role of primary care physicians. Can Fam Physician. 2008 Jun;54(6):870-5.Full text  Abstract

57. Dickson JM, Grunewald RA. Somatic symptom progression in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2004 Dec;10(8):487-92. Abstract

58. Jankovic J. Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Apr;79(4):368-76.Full text  Abstract

59. Merati AL, Heman-Ackah YD, Abaza M, et al. Common movement disorders affecting the larynx: a report from the neurolaryngology committee of the AAO-HNS. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005 Nov;133(5):654-65. Abstract

60. Jacobson BH, Johnson A, Grywalski C, et al. The Voice Handicap Index (VHI): development and validation. Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 1997 Aug 1;6(3):66-70.

61. Rosen CA, Lee AS, Osborne J, et al. Development and validation of the voice handicap index-10. Laryngoscope. 2004 Sep;114(9):1549-56. Abstract

62. Zur KB, Cotton S, Kelchner L, et al. Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI): a new tool for evaluating pediatric dysphonia. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Jan;71(1):77-82. Abstract

63. De Bodt MS, Wuyts FL, Van de Heyning PH, et al. Test-retest study of the GRBAS scale: influence of experience and professional background on perceptual rating of voice quality. J Voice. 1997 Mar;11(1):74-80. Abstract

64. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Consensus auditory-perceptual evaluation of voice (CAPE-V). 2006 [internet publication].Full text

65. Hirano M. Clinical examination of voice. New York, NY: Springer Verlag; 1981.

66. Wuyts FL, De Bodt MS, Molenberghs G, et al. The dysphonia severity index: an objective measure of vocal quality based on a multiparameter approach. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2000 Jun;43(3):796-809. Abstract

67. Dejonckere PH, Bradley P, Clemente P, et al. A basic protocol for functional assessment of voice pathology, especially for investigating the efficacy of (phonosurgical) treatments and evaluating new assessment techniques. Guideline elaborated by the Committee on Phoniatrics of the European Laryngological Society (ELS). Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001 Feb;258(2):77-82. Abstract

68. Eckel FC, Boone DR. The S/Z ratio as an indicator of laryngeal pathology. J Speech Hear Disord. 1981 May;46(2):147-9. Abstract

69. Titze IR; National Center for Voice and Speech. Phonation threshold pressure. 2005 [internet publication].Full text

70. Akst LM, Zeitels SM. Historical developments in laryngology. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006: 3.

71. Sataloff RT. Professional voice evaluation. In: Ossoff RH, Shapshay SM, Woodson G, et al, eds. The larynx. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003: 17.

72. Hirano M, Bless DM. Videostroboscopic examination of the larynx. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group; 1993.

73. Maronian N, Robinson L. Laryngeal electromyography. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006: 107.

74. Eng SP, Lawson G, Vanderborght T, et al. Radiology of the larynx. In: Merati AL, Bielamowicz SA, eds. Textbook of laryngology. San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing; 2006.

75. Roy N, Ford CN, Bless DM. Muscle tension dysphonia and spasmodic dysphonia: the role of manual laryngeal tension reduction in diagnosis and management. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1996 Nov;105(11):851-6. Abstract

76. Gordon BR. Asthma history and presentation. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2008 Apr;41(2):375-85. Abstract

77. Treole K, Trudeau MD, Forrest LA. Endoscopic and stroboscopic description of adults with paradoxical vocal fold dysfunction. J Voice. 1999 Mar;13(1):143-52. Abstract

78. Fahey JT, Bryant NJ, Karas D, et al. Exercise-induced stridor due to abnormal movement of the arytenoid area: videoendoscopic diagnosis and characterization of the "at risk" group. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2005 Jan;39(1):51-5. Abstract

79. Perkner JJ, Fennelly KP, Balkissoon R, et al. Irritant-associated vocal cord dysfunction. J Occup Environ Med. 1998 Feb;40(2):136-43. Abstract

80. Wilson JJ, Wilson EM. Practical management: vocal cord dysfunction in athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2006 Jul;16(4):357-60. Abstract

81. Hirschi SD, Gray SD, Thibeault SL. Fibronectin: an interesting vocal fold protein. J Voice. 2002 Sep;16(3):310-6. Abstract

82. Rousseau B, Hirano S, Chan RW, et al. Characterization of chronic vocal fold scarring in a rabbit model. J Voice. 2004 Mar;18(1):116-24. Abstract

83. Beaver ME, Stasney CR, Rodriguez M. Acute ulcerative laryngitis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2005 May;84(5):268. Abstract

84. Rakel B, Spiegel JR, Sataloff RT. Prolonged ulcerative laryngitis. J Voice. 2002 Sep;16(3):433-8. Abstract

85. Belafsky PC, Postma GN, Koufman JA. The validity and reliability of the reflux finding score (RFS). Laryngoscope. 2001 Aug;111(8):1313-7. Abstract

86. Dobhan R, Castell DO. Normal and abnormal proximal esophageal acid exposure: results of ambulatory dual-probe pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan;88(1):25-9. Abstract

87. Tutuian R, Castell DO. Gastroesophageal reflux monitoring: PH and impedance. May 2006 [internet publication].Full text

88. Block BB, Brodsky L. Hoarseness in children: the role of laryngopharyngeal reflux. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007 Sep;71(9):1361-9. Abstract

89. Kuhn J, Toohill RJ, Ulualp SO, et al. Pharyngeal acid reflux events in patients with vocal cord nodules. Laryngoscope. 1998 Aug;108(8 Pt 1):1146-9. Abstract

90. Sulica L. Polyps and Reinke's edema: distinct laryngeal pathologies with different potential for glottic airway obstruction. Anesth Analg. 2005 Jun;100(6):1863. Abstract

91. Lemos EM, Sennes LU, Imamura R, et al. Vocal process granuloma: clinical characterization, treatment and evolution. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2005 Jul-Aug;71(4):494-8.Full text  Abstract

92. Luzar B, Gale N, Klopcic U, et al. Laryngeal granuloma: characteristics of the covering epithelium. J Laryngol Otol. 2000 Apr;114(4):264-7. Abstract

93. Woodson G. The aging larynx. In: Ossoff RH, Shapshay SM, Woodson G, et al, eds. The larynx. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2003: 251.

94. Blumin JH, Pcolinsky DE, Atkins JP. Laryngeal findings in advanced Parkinson's disease. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2004 Apr;113(4):253-8. Abstract

95. Gamboa J, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Nieto A, et al. Acoustic voice analysis in patients with essential tremor. J Voice. 1998 Dec;12(4):444-52. Abstract

96. Strychowsky JE, Rukholm G, Gupta MK, et al. Unilateral vocal fold paralysis after congenital cardiothoracic surgery: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun;133(6):e1708-23.Full text  Abstract

97. Roy N, Gouse M, Mauszycki SC, et al. Task specificity in adductor spasmodic dysphonia versus muscle tension dysphonia. Laryngoscope. 2005 Feb;115(2):311-6. Abstract

98. Patel R, Dailey S, Bless D. Comparison of high-speed digital imaging with stroboscopy for laryngeal imaging of glottal disorders. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2008 Jun;117(6):413-24. Abstract

99. Heman-Ackah YD, Mandel S, Manon-Espaillat R, et al. Laryngeal electromyography. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2007 Oct;40(5):1003-23. Abstract

100. Devaney KO, Rinaldo A, Zeitels SM, et al. Laryngeal dysplasia and other epithelial changes on endoscopic biopsy: what does it all mean to the individual patient? ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2004;66(1):1-4. Abstract

101. Curtin HD, Sakai O. Imaging of the larynx: magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography. In: Ossoff RH, Shapshay SM, Woodson G, et al, eds. The larynx. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2003.

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer