Proteinuria or haematuria, and/or a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, for more than 3 months' duration.
The most common causes are diabetes mellitus and hypertension.
The majority of people are asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is determined only by laboratory studies.
Glycaemic control for diabetic nephropathy and optimisation of blood pressure are key in slowing the progression of disease.
Increased risk for cardiovascular disease.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal failure, is defined by either a pathological abnormality of the kidney, such as haematuria and/or proteinuria, or a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate to <60 mL/minute/1.73 m² for ≥3 months' duration.
History and exam
Assistant Professor of Medicine
University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences
Central Arkansas Veterans Healthcare System
MWK declares that she has no competing interests.
Dr Michelle Krause would like to gratefully acknowledge Professor Sudhir V. Shah, a previous contributor to this topic. SVS declares that he has no competing interests.
Internal Medicine - Nephrology
Southwestern Medical School
The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
RT declares that he has no competing interests.
Professor of Nephrology
UCL Division of Medicine
University College London
GHN declares that he has no competing interests.
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