Bradycardia

References

Key articles

Mangrum JM, DiMarco JP. The evaluation and management of bradycardia. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10):703-9. Abstract

Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 20;74(7):e51-156.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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29. Monté CP, Monté CJ, Boon P, et al. Epileptic seizures associated with syncope: Ictal bradycardia and ictal asystole. Epilepsy Behav. 2019 Jan;90:168-171.Full text  Abstract

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33. Jones SA, Boyett MR, Lancaster MK. Declining into failure: the age-dependent loss of the L-type calcium channel within the sinoatrial node. Circulation. 2007 Mar 13;115(10):1183-90.Full text  Abstract

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35. Meine T, Al-Khatib S, Alexander J, et al. Incidence, predictors, and outcomes of high-degree atrioventricular block complicating acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic therapy. Am Heart J. 2005 Apr;149(4):670-4. Abstract

36. Aplin M, Engstrom T, Vejlstrup NG, et al. Prognostic importance of complete atrioventricular block complicating acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Oct 1;92(7):853-6. Abstract

37. Erkapic D, De Rosa S, Kelava A, et al. Risk for permanent pacemaker after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a comprehensive analysis of the literature. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2012 Apr;23(4):391-7. Abstract

38. Nazif TM, Dizon JM, Hahn RT, et al; PARTNER Publications Office. Predictors and clinical outcomes of permanent pacemaker implantation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the PARTNER (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) trial and registry. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2015 Jan;8(1 Part A):60-9.Full text  Abstract

39. Nisbet AM, Burton FL, Walker NL, et al. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node. Front Physiol. 2014 Jun 25;5:233.Full text  Abstract

40. Glikson M, Nielsen JC, Kronborg MB, et al. 2021 ESC Guidelines on cardiac pacing and cardiac resynchronization therapy. Eur Heart J. 2021 Sep 14;42(35):3427-3520.Full text  Abstract

41. Eraut D, Shaw DB. Sinus bradycardia. Br Heart J. 1971 Sep;33(5):742-9.Full text  Abstract

42. Tilkian AG, Guilleminault C, Schroeder JS, et al. Sleep-induced apnea syndrome: prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and their reversal after tracheostomy. Am J Med. 1977 Sep;63(3):348-58. Abstract

43. Abbott JA, Hirschfeld DS, Kunkel FW, et al. Graded exercise testing in patients with sinus node dysfunction. Am J Med. 1977 Mar;62(3):330-8. Abstract

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45. Morillo CA, Camacho ME, Wood MA, et al. Diagnostic utility of mechanical, pharmacological and orthostatic stimulation of the carotid sinus in patients with unexplained syncope. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Nov 1;34(5):1587-94. Abstract

46. Brignole M, Sutton R, Menozzi C, et al. Early application of an implantable loop recorder allows effective specific therapy in patients with recurrent suspected neurally mediated syncope. Eur Heart J. 2006 May;27(9):1085-92.Full text  Abstract

47. Krahn AD, Klein GJ, Yee R, et al. The high cost of syncope: cost implications of a new insertable loop recorder in the investigation of recurrent syncope. Am Heart J. 1999 May;137(5):870-7. Abstract

48. Englund A, Bergfeldt L, Rosenqvist M. Pharmacological stress testing of the His-Purkinje system in patients with bifascicular block. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998 Oct;21(10):1979-87. Abstract

49. Scheinman MM, Peters RW, Suavé MJ, et al. Value of the H-Q interval in patients with bundle branch block and the role of prophylactic permanent pacing. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Dec;50(6):1316-22. Abstract

50. Menozzi C, Brignole M, Garcia-Civera R, et al; International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology (ISSUE) Investigators. Mechanism of syncope in patients with heart disease and negative electrophysiologic test. Circulation. 2002 Jun 11;105(23):2741-5.Full text  Abstract

51. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Moya A, et al; International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology (ISSUE) Investigators. Mechanism of syncope in patients with bundle branch block and negative electrophysiological test. Circulation. 2001 Oct 23;104(17):2045-50.Full text  Abstract

52. Stegman SS, Burroughs JM, Henthorn RW. Asymptomatic bradyarrhythmias as a marker for sleep apnea: appropriate recognition and treatment may reduce the need for pacemaker therapy. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1996 Jun;19(6):899-904. Abstract

53. Kaushik V, Leon AR, Forrester JS Jr, et al. Bradyarrhythmias, temporary and permanent pacing. Crit Care Med. 2000 Oct;28(suppl 10):N121-8. Abstract

54. Gammage MD. Temporary cardiac pacing. Heart. 2000 Jun;83(6):715-20.Full text  Abstract

55. Benditt DG, Benson DW Jr, Kreitt J, et al. Electrophysiologic effects of theophylline in young patients with recurrent symptomatic bradyarrhythmias. Am J Cardiol. 1983 Dec 1;52(10):1223-9. Abstract

56. Sra JS, Jazayeri MR, Avitall B, et al. Comparison of cardiac pacing with drug therapy in the treatment of neurocardiogenic (vasovagal) syncope with bradycardia or asystole. N Engl J Med. 1993 Apr 15;328(15):1085-90.Full text  Abstract

57. Sweeney MO, Hellkamp AS, Ellenbogen KA, et al. Adverse effect of ventricular pacing on heart failure and atrial fibrillation among patients with normal baseline QRS duration in a clinical trial of pacemaker therapy for sinus node dysfunction. Circulation. 2003 Jun 17;107(23):2932-7.Full text  Abstract

58. Gillis AM, Russo AM, Ellenbogen KA, et al. HRS/ACCF expert consensus statement on pacemaker device and mode selection. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Aug 14;60(7):682-703.Full text  Abstract

59. Edwards SJ, Karner C, Trevor N, et al. Dual-chamber pacemakers for treating symptomatic bradycardia due to sick sinus syndrome without atrioventricular block: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technol Assess. 2015 Aug;19(65):1-210. Abstract

60. Wilkoff BL, Cook JR, Epstein AE, et al; DAVID Trial Investigators. Dual-chamber pacing or ventricular backup pacing in patients with an implantable defibrillator: the Dual Chamber and VVI Implantable Defibrillator (DAVID) Trial. JAMA. 2002 Dec 25;288(24):3115-23.Full text  Abstract

61. Sweeney MO, Bank AJ, Nsah E, et al. Minimizing ventricular pacing to reduce atrial fibrillation in sinus-node disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Sep 6;357(10):1000-8.Full text  Abstract

62. Curtis AB, Worley SJ, Adamson PB, et al. Biventricular pacing for atrioventricular block and systolic dysfunction. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 25;368(17):1585-93.Full text  Abstract

63. Grubb BP. Neurocardiogenic syncope and related disorders of orthostatic intolerance. Circulation. 2005 Jun 7;111(22):2997-3006.Full text  Abstract

64. Grubb BP. Clinical practice: neurocardiogenic syncope. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 10;352(10):1004-10. Abstract

65. Theodorakis GN, Leftheriotis D, Livanis EG, et al. Fluoxetine vs. propranolol in the treatment of vasovagal syncope: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Europace. 2006 Mar;8(3):193-8.Full text  Abstract

66. Brignole M, Moya A, de Lange FJ, et al. 2018 ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of syncope. Eur Heart J. 2018 Jun 1;39(21):1883-948.Full text  Abstract

67. Brignole M, Menozzi C, Moya A, et al; International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology 3 (ISSUE-3) Investigators. Pacemaker therapy in patients with neurally mediated syncope and documented asystole. Third International Study on Syncope of Uncertain Etiology (ISSUE-3): a randomized trial. Circulation. 2012 May 29;125(21):2566-71.Full text  Abstract

68. Gopinathannair R, Salgado BC, Olshansky B. Pacing for vasovagal syncope. Arrhythm Electrophysiol Rev. 2018 Jun;7(2):95-102.Full text  Abstract

69. Kusumoto FM, Schoenfeld MH, Barrett C, et al. 2018 ACC/AHA/HRS guideline on the evaluation and management of patients with bradycardia and cardiac conduction delay: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2019 Aug 20;74(7):e51-156.Full text  Abstract

70. Su L, Wang S, Wu S, et al. Long-term safety and feasibility of left bundle branch pacing in a large single-center study. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2021 Feb;14(2):e009261.Full text  Abstract

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