Medial collateral ligament injury

References

Key articles

O'Donoghue DH. An analysis of end results of surgical treatment of major injuries to the ligaments of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg. 1955;37-A:1-13. Abstract

American Medical Association, Committee on the Medical Aspects of Sports. Standard nomenclature of athletic injuries. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 1966:99-100.

Fetto JF, Marshall JL. Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: a rationale for treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;132:206-218. Abstract

Warren RF, Marshall JL. Injuries of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments of the knee. A long-term follow-up of 86 cases - part II. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;136:198-211. Abstract

Phisitkul P, James SL, Wolf BR, et al. MCL injuries of the knee: current concepts review. Iowa Orthop J. 2006;26:77-90.Full text  Abstract

Wijdicks CA, Griffith CJ, Johansen S, et al. Injuries to the medial collateral ligament and associated medial structures of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:1266-1280. Abstract

Halinen J, Lindahl J, Hirvensalo E, et al. Operative and nonoperative treatments of medial collateral ligament rupture with early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective randomized study. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1134-1140. Abstract

Marchant MH Jr, Tibor LM, Sekiya JK, et al. Management of medial-sided knee injuries, part 1: medial collateral ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1102-1113. Abstract

Giannotti BF, Rudy T, Graziano J. The non-surgical management of isolated medial collateral injuries of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2006;14:74-77. Abstract

Reference articles

1. O'Donoghue DH. An analysis of end results of surgical treatment of major injuries to the ligaments of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg. 1955;37-A:1-13. Abstract

2. American Medical Association, Committee on the Medical Aspects of Sports. Standard nomenclature of athletic injuries. Chicago, IL: American Medical Association; 1966:99-100.

3. Makhmalbaf H, Shahpari O. Medial collateral ligament injury; a new classification based on MRI and clinical findings. A guide for patient selection and early surgical intervention. Arch Bone Jt Surg. 2018 Jan;6(1):3-7.Full text  Abstract

4. Slocum DB, Larson RL, James SL. Late reconstruction procedures used to stabilize the knee. Orthop Clin North Am. 1973;4:679-689. Abstract

5. Fetto JF, Marshall JL. Medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee: a rationale for treatment. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;132:206-218. Abstract

6. Hughston JC, Barrett GR. Acute anteromedial rotator instability. Long-term results of surgical repair. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1983;65:145-153. Abstract

7. Warren RF, Marshall JL. Injuries of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments of the knee. A long-term follow-up of 86 cases - part II. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1978;136:198-211. Abstract

8. Abbot LC, Saunders JB, Bost FC, et al. Injuries to ligaments of the knee joint. J Bone Joint Surg. 1944;26:503-521.

9. Andrews K, Lu A, Mckean L, et al. Review: Medial collateral ligament injuries. J Orthop. 2017 Aug 15;14(4):550-554.Full text  Abstract

10. Meyers MC, Barnhill BS. Incidence, causes, and severity of high school football injuries on FieldTurf versus natural grass: a 5-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:1626-1638. Abstract

11. Paletta GA, Warren RF. Knee injuries and alpine skiing. Treatment and rehabilitation. Sports Med. 1994;17:411-423. Abstract

12. Dallalana RJ, Brooks JH, Kemp SP, et al. The epidemiology of knee injuries in English professional rugby union. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35:818-830. Abstract

13. Gardiner JC, Weiss JA, Rosenberg TD. Strain in the human medial collateral ligament during valgus loading of the knee. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2001;391:266-274. Abstract

14. Weiss JA, Woo SL, Ohland KJ, et al. Evaluation of a new injury model to study medial collateral ligament healing: primary repair versus nonoperative treatment. J Orthop Res. 1991;9:516-528. Abstract

15. Shea KG, Carey JL. Management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries: evidence-based guideline. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015 Mar 20;23(5):e1-5. Abstract

16. Hughston JC, Andrews JR, Cross MJ, et al. Classification of knee ligament instabilities. Part I. The medial compartment and cruciate ligaments. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1976;58:159-172. Abstract

17. Edson CJ. Conservative and postoperative rehabilitation of isolated and combined injuries of the medial collateral ligament. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2006;14:105-110. Abstract

18. Jacobson KE, Chi FS. Evaluation and treatment of medial collateral ligament and medial-sided injuries of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2006;14:58-66. Abstract

19. Phisitkul P, James SL, Wolf BR, et al. MCL injuries of the knee: current concepts review. Iowa Orthop J. 2006;26:77-90.Full text  Abstract

20. Indelicato P, Linton R. Medial ligament injuries in the adult. In: DeLee J, Drez, D, Miller MD, eds. DeLee & Drez's orthopaedic sports medicine. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2003:1938-1949.

21. Garvin GJ, Munk PL, Vellet AD. Tears of the medial collateral ligament: magnetic resonance imaging findings and associated injuries. Can Assoc Radiol J. 1993;44:199-204. Abstract

22. Sims WF, Jacobson KE. The posteromedial corner of the knee: medial-sided injury patterns revisited. Am J Sports Med. 2004;32:337-345. Abstract

23. Donaldson WF 3rd, Warren RF, Wickiewicz T. A comparison of acute anterior cruciate ligament examinations. Initial versus examination under anesthesia. Am J Sports Med. 1985;13:5-10. Abstract

24. Laprade RF, Bernhardson AS, Griffith CJ, et al. Correlation of valgus stress radiographs with medial knee ligament injuries: an in vitro biomechanical study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38:330-338. Abstract

25. Lee D, Bouffard JA. Ultrasound of the knee. Eur J Ultrasound. 2001;14:57-71. Abstract

26. Shelbourne KD, Martini DJ, McCarroll JR, et al. Correlation of joint line tenderness and meniscal lesions in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. Am J Sports Med. 1995;23:166-169. Abstract

27. Bussieres AE, Taylor JA, Peterson C. Diagnostic imaging practice guidelines for musculoskeletal complaints in adults - an evidence-based approach. Part 1. Lower extremity disorders. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2007;30:684-717. Abstract

28. Corea JR, Moussa M, al Othman A. McMurray's test tested. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1994;2:70-72. Abstract

29. Logerstedt DS, Snyder-Mackler L, Ritter RC, et al. Knee stability and movement coordination impairments: knee ligament sprain. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2010;40:A1-A37.Full text  Abstract

30. Rue JPH, Lewis PB, Detterline AJ, et al. Minimally invasive medial collateral ligament reconstruction using Achilles tendon allograft. Tech Knee Surg. 2007;6:266-273.

31. Azar FM. Evaluation and treatment of chronic medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2006;14:84-90. Abstract

32. Mook WR, Miller MD, Diduch DR, et al. Multiple-ligament knee injuries: a systematic review of the timing of operative intervention and postoperative rehabilitation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2009;91:2946-2957. Abstract

33. Woo SL, Young EP, Ohland KJ, et al. The effects of transaction of the anterior cruciate ligament on healing of the medial collateral ligament: a biomechanical study of the knee in dogs. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990;72:382-392. Abstract

34. Wijdicks CA, Griffith CJ, Johansen S, et al. Injuries to the medial collateral ligament and associated medial structures of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010;92:1266-1280. Abstract

35. Halinen J, Lindahl J, Hirvensalo E, et al. Operative and nonoperative treatments of medial collateral ligament rupture with early anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective randomized study. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1134-1140. Abstract

36. Marchant MH Jr, Tibor LM, Sekiya JK, et al. Management of medial-sided knee injuries, part 1: medial collateral ligament. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39:1102-1113. Abstract

37. Grant JA, Tannenbaum E, Miller BS, et al. Treatment of combined complete tears of the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments. Arthroscopy. 2012;28:110-122. Abstract

38. Levy BA, Dajani KA, Whelan DB, et al. Decision making in the multiligament-injured knee: an evidence-based systematic review. Arthroscopy. 2009;25:430-438. Abstract

39. Peskun CJ, Whelan DB. Outcomes of operative and nonoperative treatment of multiligament knee injuries: an evidence-based review. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2011;19:167-173. Abstract

40. Giannotti BF, Rudy T, Graziano J. The non-surgical management of isolated medial collateral injuries of the knee. Sports Med Arthrosc. 2006;14:74-77. Abstract

41. Lundberg M, Messner K. Ten-year prognosis of isolated and combined medial collateral ligament ruptures: a matched comparison in 40 patients using clinical and radiographic evaluations. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25:2-6. Abstract

42. Lundberg M, Messner K. Long-term prognosis of isolated partial medial collateral ligament ruptures: a ten-year clinical and radiographic evaluation of a prospectively observed group of patients. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24:160-163. Abstract

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