Vitamin B12 deficiency

References

Key articles

Devalia V, Hamilton MS, Molloy AM; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin and folate disorders. Br J Haematol. 2014 Aug;166(4):496-513.Full text  Abstract

Snow CF. Laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency: a guide for the primary care physician. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Jun 28;159(12):1289-98.Full text  Abstract

Pennypacker LC, Allen RH, Kelly JP, et al. High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Dec;40(12):1197-204. Abstract

Andres E, Loukili NH, Noel E, et al. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. CMAJ. 2004 Aug 3;171(3):251-9.Full text  Abstract

Stabler SP. Clinical practice. Vitamin B12 deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 10;368(2):149-60. Abstract

Wang H, Li L, Qin LL, et al. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 15;(3):CD004655.Full text  Abstract

Carmel R. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. Blood. 2008 Sep 15;112(6):2214-21.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Devalia V, Hamilton MS, Molloy AM; British Committee for Standards in Haematology. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin and folate disorders. Br J Haematol. 2014 Aug;166(4):496-513.Full text  Abstract

2. Snow CF. Laboratory diagnosis of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency: a guide for the primary care physician. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Jun 28;159(12):1289-98.Full text  Abstract

3. Tavares J, Baptista B, Gonçalves B, et al. Pernicious anaemia with normal vitamin B12. Eur J Case Rep Intern Med. 2019;6(2):001045.Full text  Abstract

4. Shah DR, Daver N, Borthakur G, et al. Pernicious anemia with spuriously normal vitamin B12 level might be misdiagnosed as myelodysplastic syndrome. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2014 Aug;14(4):e141-3.Full text  Abstract

5. Yang DT, Cook RJ. Spurious elevations of vitamin B12 with pernicious anemia. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 3;366(18):1742-3.Full text  Abstract

6. Mazokopakis EE. Normal serum cobalamin levels do not exclude the diagnosis of pernicious anaemia: a case report. Fam Pract. 2020 Feb 19;37(1):1-3.Full text  Abstract

7. Tucker KL, Rich S, Rosenberg I, et al. Plasma vitamin B-12 concentrations relate to intake source in the Framingham Offspring study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Feb;71(2):514-22.Full text  Abstract

8. Pennypacker LC, Allen RH, Kelly JP, et al. High prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in elderly outpatients. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1992 Dec;40(12):1197-204. Abstract

9. Clarke R, Grimley Evans J, Schneede J, et al. Vitamin B12 and folate deficiency in later life. Age Ageing. 2004 Jan;33(1):34-41.Full text  Abstract

10. Andres E, Loukili NH, Noel E, et al. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency in elderly patients. CMAJ. 2004 Aug 3;171(3):251-9.Full text  Abstract

11. Pfisterer KJ, Sharratt MT, Heckman GG, et al. Vitamin B12 status in older adults living in Ontario long-term care homes: prevalence and incidence of deficiency with supplementation as a protective factor. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Feb;41(2):219-22. Abstract

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23. Chapman LE, Darling AL, Brown JE, et al. Association between metformin and vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetes Metab. 2016 Nov;42(5):316-27. Abstract

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26. Lewerin C, Jacobsson S, Lindstedt G, et al. Serum biomarkers for atrophic gastritis and antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in the elderly: implications for vitamin B12, folic acid and iron status and response to oral vitamin therapy. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2008;43(9):1050-6. Abstract

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29. Stabler SP. Clinical practice. Vitamin B12 deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2013 Jan 10;368(2):149-60. Abstract

30. Lindenbaum J, Healton EB, Savage DG, et al. Neuropsychiatric disorders caused by cobalamin deficiency in the absence of anemia or macrocytosis. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jun 30;318(26):1720-8. Abstract

31. Baik HW, Russell RM. Vitamin B12 deficiency in the elderly. Annu Rev Nutr. 1999;19:357-77. Abstract

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36. Lederer AK, Hannibal L, Hettich M, et al. Vitamin B12 Status Upon Short-Term Intervention with a Vegan Diet-A Randomized Controlled Trial in Healthy Participants. Nutrients. 2019 Nov 18;11(11):2815.Full text  Abstract

37. Aroda VR, Edelstein SL, Goldberg RB, et al. Long-term metformin use and vitamin b12 deficiency in the diabetes prevention program outcomes study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Apr;101(4):1754-61.Full text  Abstract

38. Mazokopakis EE, Starakis IK. Recommendations for diagnosis and management of metformin-induced vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2012 Sep;97(3):359-67. Abstract

39. Yang W, Cai X, Wu H, et al. Associations between metformin use and vitamin B12 levels, anemia, and neuropathy in patients with diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Diabetes. 2019 Sep;11(9):729-43. Abstract

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43. Finkelstein JL, Kurpad AV, Thomas T, et al. Vitamin B12 status in pregnant women and their infants in South India. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017 Sep 12;71(9):1046-53. Abstract

44. Rogne T, Tielemans MJ, Chong MF, et al. Associations of maternal vitamin B12 concentration in pregnancy with the risks of preterm birth and low birth weight: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 1;185(3):212-23.Full text  Abstract

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50. Miller JW, Garrod MG, Rockwood AL, et al. Measurement of total vitamin B12 and holotranscobalamin, singly and in combination, in screening for metabolic vitamin B12 deficiency. Clin Chem. 2006 Feb;52(2):278-85.Full text  Abstract

51. Obeid R, Herrmann W. Holotranscobalamin in laboratory diagnosis of cobalamin deficiency compared to total cobalamin and methylmalonic acid. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2007;45(12):1746-50. Abstract

52. Valente E, Scott JM, Ueland PM, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid, serum cobalamin, and other indicators of tissue vitamin b12 status in the elderly. Clin Chem. 2011 Jun;57(6):856-63.Full text  Abstract

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66. Berlin H, Berlin R, Brante G. Oral treatment of pernicious anemia with high doses of vitamin B12 without intrinsic factor. Acta Med Scand. 1968 Oct;184(4):247-58. Abstract

67. Gomollón F, Gargallo CJ, Muñoz JF, et al. Oral cyanocobalamin is effective in the treatment of vitamin B12 deficiency in Crohn's disease. Nutrients. 2017 Mar 20;9(3):E308.Full text  Abstract

68. Wang H, Li L, Qin LL, et al. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Mar 15;(3):CD004655.Full text  Abstract

69. Sharabi A, Cohen E, Sulkes J, et al. Replacement therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency: comparison between the sublingual and oral route. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;56(6):635-8.Full text  Abstract

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72. Carmel R. How I treat cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. Blood. 2008 Sep 15;112(6):2214-21.Full text  Abstract

73. Butler CC, Vidal-Alaball J, Cannings-John R, et al. Oral vitamin B12 versus intramuscular vitamin B12 for vitamin B12 deficiency: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Fam Pract. 2006 Jun;23(3):279-85.Full text  Abstract

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80. Rajan S, Wallace JI, Brodkin KI, et al. Response of elevated methylmalonic acid to three dose levels of oral cobalamin in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002 Nov;50(11):1789-95. Abstract

81. Eussen SJ, de Groot LC, Clarke R, et al. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 May 23;165(10):1167-72.Full text  Abstract

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83. Vogel T, Dali-Youcef N, Kaltenbach G, et al. Homocysteine, vitamin B12, folate and cognitive functions: a systematic and critical review of the literature. Int J Clin Pract. 2009 Jul;63(7):1061-7. Abstract

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