Schistosomiasis

References

Key articles

World Health Organization. WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

McManus DP, Dunne DW, Sacko M, et al. Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Aug 9;4(1):13. Abstract

Mutapi F, Maizels R, Fenwick A, et al. Human schistosomiasis in the post mass drug administration era. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Feb;17(2):e42-8.Full text  Abstract

Weerakoon KG, Gobert GN, Cai P, et al. Advances in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Oct;28(4):939-67. Abstract

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites - Schistosomiasis: resources for health professionals. Oct 2020 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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2. Sturrock RF. The schistosomes and their intermediate hosts. In: Mahmoud AAF, ed. Schistosomiasis. London, UK: Imperial College Press; 2001:7-83.

3. World Health Organization. Schistomiasis. Jan 2022 [internet publication]Full text

4. Kokaliaris C, Garba A, Matuska M, et al. Effect of preventive chemotherapy with praziquantel on schistosomiasis among school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa: a spatiotemporal modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022 Jan;22(1):136-49.Full text  Abstract

5. World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis (Bilharzia). 2022 [internet publication].Full text

6. World Health Organization. WHO guideline on control and elimination of human schistosomiasis. Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text

7. World Health Organization. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiases: progress report, 2020. Dec 2021 [internet publication].Full text

8. Montgomery S. Travel-related infectious diseases: Schistosomiasis. In: Brunette GW, Nemhauser JB eds. CDC Yellow Book 2020: health information for international travel. Oxford University Press; 2019 [internet publication].Full text

9. King CH. Disease due to Schistosoma mekongi, S intercalatum and other Schistosome species. In: Mahmoud AAF, ed. Schistosomiasis. London, UK: Imperial College Press; 2001:391-412.

10. Lindblade KA. The epidemiology of cercarial dermatitis and its association with limnological characteristics of a northern Michigan lake. J Parasitol. 1998 Feb;84(1):19-23. Abstract

11. McManus DP, Dunne DW, Sacko M, et al. Schistosomiasis. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Aug 9;4(1):13. Abstract

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites - schistosomiasis. Jun 2018 [internet publication].Full text

13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. DPDx - laboratory identification of parasites of public health concern: schistosomiasis. Aug 2019 [internet publication].Full text

14. King CH. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis: determinants of transmission of infection. In: Mahmoud AAF, ed. Schistosomiasis. London, UK: Imperial College Press; 2001:115-32.

15. Anderson RM, May RM. Infectious diseases of humans: dynamics and control. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 1991:467-96, 507-20.

16. Warren KS, Mahmoud AAF, Cummings P, et al. Schistosomiasis mansoni in Yemeni in California: duration of infection, presence of disease, therapeutic management. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1974 Sep;23(5):902-9. Abstract

17. Colley DG, Bustinduy AL, Secor WE, et al. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014 Jun 28;383(9936):2253-64. Abstract

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19. Ross AG, Bartley PB, Sleigh AC, et al. Schistosomiasis. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 18;346(16):1212-20. Abstract

20. Coutinho HM, Leenstra T, Acosta LP, et al. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein are associated with undernutrition in the context of Schistosoma japonicum infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006 Oct;75(4):720-6.Full text  Abstract

21. Leenstra T, Acosta LP, Langdon GC, et al. Schistosomiasis japonica, anemia, and iron status in children, adolescents, and young adults in Leyte, Philippines 1. Am J Clin Nutr. 2006 Feb;83(2):371-9.Full text  Abstract

22. Wynn TA, Thompson RW, Cheever AW, et al. Immunopathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev. 2004 Oct;201:156-67. Abstract

23. Kirchhoff LV, Nash TE. A case of schistosomiasis japonica: resolution of CAT-scan detected cerebral abnormalities without specific therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1984 Nov;33(6):1155-8. Abstract

24. Centers for Disease Control. Acute schistosomiasis with transverse myelitis in American students returning from Kenya. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1984 Aug 10;33(31):445-7. Abstract

25. Groeneveld AE, Marszalek WW, Heyns CF. Bladder cancer in various population groups in the greater Durban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Br J Urol. 1996 Aug;78(2):205-8. Abstract

26. Schwartz E, Kozarsky P, Wilson M, et al. Schistosome infection among river rafters on Omo River, Ethiopia. J Travel Med. 2005 Jan-Feb;12(1):3-8.Full text  Abstract

27. Amorosa V, Kremens D, Wolfe MS, et al. Schistosoma mansoni in family 5 years after safari. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Feb;11(2):339-41. Abstract

28. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Schistosomiasis infection. Dec 2017 [internet publication].Full text

29. Jordan P. Schistosomiasis: the St. Lucia project. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1985.

30. Wang Z, Lin C, Wang H, et al. Impact assessment of health education on schistosomiasis among high school students in wanzhou area of three gorges reservoir. CJEBM. 2012;12:274-7.

31. Garn JV, Wilkers JL, Meehan AA, et al. Interventions to improve water, sanitation, and hygiene for preventing soil‐transmitted helminth infection. Cochrane Database of Syst Rev. 2022 Jun 21;(6):CD012199.Full text

32. Mutapi F, Maizels R, Fenwick A, et al. Human schistosomiasis in the post mass drug administration era. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017 Feb;17(2):e42-8.Full text  Abstract

33. Freer JB, Bourke CD, Durhuus GH, et al. Schistosomiasis in the first 1000 days. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Jun;18(6):e193-e203.Full text  Abstract

34. Molehin AJ, McManus DP, You H. Vaccines for human schistosomiasis: recent progress, new developments and future prospects. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Feb 18;23(4):2255.Full text  Abstract

35. Warren KS, Mahmoud AA. Algorithms in the diagnosis and management of exotic diseases: I. schistosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 1975 May;131(5):614-20. Abstract

36. Mulvihill CA, Burnett JW. Swimmer's itch: a cercarial dermatitis. Cutis. 1990 Sep;46(3):211-3. Abstract

37. de Jesus AR, Silva A, Santana LB, et al. Clinical and immunologic evaluation of 31 patients with acute schistosomiasis mansoni. J Infect Dis. 2002 Jan 1;185(1):98-105. Abstract

38. Johnston V, Stockley JM, Dockrell D, et al. British Infection Society and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases. Fever in returned travellers presenting in the United Kingdom: recommendations for investigation and initial management. J Infect. 2009 Jul;59(1):1-18. Abstract

39. Coutinho HM, McGarvey ST, Acosta LP, et al. Nutritional status and serum cytokine profiles in children, adolescents, and young adults with Schistosoma japonicum-associated hepatic fibrosis, in Leyte, Philippines. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 1;192(3):528-36. Abstract

40. King CH, Dickman K, Tisch DJ. Reassessment of the cost of chronic helmintic infection: a meta-analysis of disability-related outcomes in endemic schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2005 Apr 30-May 6;365(9470):1561-9. Abstract

41. Kjetland EF, Ndhlovu PD, Mduluza T, et al. Simple clinical manifestations of genital Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Zimbabwean women. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005 Mar;72(3):311-9.Full text  Abstract

42. Corachan M, Valls ME, Gascon J, et al. Hematospermia: a new etiology of clinical interest. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1994 May;50(5):580-4. Abstract

43. Peters PAS, Kazura JW. Update on diagnostic methods for schistosomiasis. In: Mahmoud AAF, ed. Balliere's clinical tropical medicine and communicable diseases: schistosomiasis. London, UK: Bailliere Tindall; 1987:419-33.

44. Savioli L, Hatz C, Dixon H, et al. Control of morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium on Pemba Island: egg excretion and hematuria as indicators of infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Sep;43(3):289-95. Abstract

45. Al-Sherbiny MM, Osman AM, Hancock K, et al. Application of immunodiagnostic assays: detection of antibodies and circulating antigens in human schistosomiasis and correlation with clinical findings. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1999 Jun;60(6):960-6.Full text  Abstract

46. Weerakoon KG, Gobert GN, Cai P, et al. Advances in the diagnosis of human schistosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Oct;28(4):939-67. Abstract

47. Ochodo EA, Gopalakrishna G, Spek B, et al. Circulating antigen tests and urine reagent strips for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis in endemic areas. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Mar 11;(3):CD009579.Full text  Abstract

48. Ferrari TC. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99(5 Suppl 1):59-62.Full text  Abstract

49. King CL. Schistosomiasis. In: Mahmoud AAF, ed. Parasitic lung diseases. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker; 1997:135-55.

50. El-Mahgoub S. Pelvic schistosomiasis and infertility. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1982 Jun;20(3):201-6. Abstract

51. Pittella JE. Neuroschistosomiasis. Brain Pathol. 1997 Jan;7(1):649-62. Abstract

52. Gellido CL, Onesti S, Llena J, et al. Spinal schistosomiasis. Neurology. 2000 Jan 25;54(2):527. Abstract

53. Richter J, Correia Dacal AR, Vergetti Siqueira JG, et al. Sonographic prediction of variceal bleeding in patients with liver fibrosis due to Schistosoma mansoni. Trop Med Int Health. 1998 Sep;3(9):728-35. Abstract

54. Bedwani R, Renganathan E, El Kwhsky F, et al. Schistosomiasis and the risk of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt. Br J Cancer. 1998 Apr;77(7):1186-9. Abstract

55. King CH, Keating CE, Muruka JF, et al. Urinary tract morbidity in schistosomiasis haematobia: associations with age and intensity of infection in an endemic area of Coast Province, Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1988 Oct;39(4):361-8. Abstract

56. Ross AG, Vickers D, Olds GR, et al. Katayama syndrome. Lancet Infect Dis. 2007 Mar;7(3):218-24. Abstract

57. Gendrel D, Kombila M, Beaudoin-Leblevec G, et al. Nontyphoidal salmonellal septicemia in Gabonese children infected with Schistosoma intercalatum. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jan;18(1):103-5. Abstract

58. Lambertucci JR, Rayes AA, Serufo JC, et al. Schistosomiasis and associated infections. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1998;93(suppl 1):135-9. Abstract

59. Lengeler C, Utzinger J, Tanner M. Questionnaires for rapid screening of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 2002;80(3):235-42.Full text  Abstract

60. Swai B, Poggensee G, Mtweve S, et al. Female genital schistosomiasis as an evidence of a neglected cause for reproductive ill-health: a retrospective histopathological study from Tanzania. BMC Infect Dis. 2006 Aug 23;6:134.Full text  Abstract

61. Richter J, Hatz C, Campagne G, et al. Ultrasound in schistosomiasis: a practical guide to the standardized use of ultrasonography for the assessment of schistosomiasis-related morbidity. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2000.

62. van Velthuysen ML, Florquin S. Glomerulopathy associated with parasitic infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2000 Jan;13(1):55-66.Full text  Abstract

63. Forsyth DM, Bradley DJ, McMahon J. Death attributed to kidney failure in communities with endemic urinary schistosomiasis. Lancet. 1970 Aug 29;2(7670):472-3. Abstract

64. Grech M, Busuttil G, Gauci CD, et al. Urinary schistosomiasis: a case of late presentation. BMJ Case Rep. 2022 Mar 1;15(3):e246966.Full text  Abstract

65. Gordon MA, Zijlstra EE, Naus CW, et al. Schistosomiasis does not contribute to death or recurrence of nontyphoid Salmonella bacteremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Malawian adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Dec 15;37(12):e177-9. Abstract

66. Moore TA, McCarthy JS. Toxocariasis and larva migrans syndromes. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical infectious diseases, principles, pathogens and practice. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone; 2006:1209-16.

67. King CH, Magak P, Salam EA, et al. Measuring morbidity in schistosomiasis mansoni: relationship between image pattern, portal vein diameter and portal branch thickness in large-scale surveys using new WHO coding guidelines for ultrasound in schistosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2003 Feb;8(2):109-17.Full text  Abstract

68. King CH. Ultrasound monitoring of structural urinary tract disease in Schistosoma haematobium infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97(suppl 1):149-52.Full text  Abstract

69. Means AR, Burns P, Sinclair D, et al. Antihelminthics in helminth-endemic areas: effects on HIV disease progression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Apr 14;4:CD006419.Full text  Abstract

70. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Parasites - Schistosomiasis: resources for health professionals. Oct 2020 [internet publication].Full text

71. Hailegebriel T, Nibret E, Munshea A. Efficacy of praziquantel for the treatment of human schistosomiasis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Trop Med. 2021;2021:2625255.Full text  Abstract

72. Hatz C, Mayombana C, de Savigny D, et al. Ultrasound scanning for detecting morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and its resolution following treatment with different doses of praziquantel. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1990 Jan-Feb;84(1):84-8. Abstract

73. Danso-Appiah A, Olliaro PL, Donegan S, et al. Drugs for treating Schistosoma mansoni infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD000528.Full text  Abstract

74. King CH, Mahmoud AA. Drugs five years later: praziquantel. Ann Intern Med. 1989 Feb 15;110(4):290-6. Abstract

75. Liu R, Dong HF, Guo Y, et al. Efficacy of praziquantel and artemisinin derivatives for the treatment and prevention of human schistosomiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:201.Full text  Abstract

76. Utzinger J, Xiao SH, Tanner M, et al. Artemisinins for schistosomiasis and beyond. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Feb;8(2):105-16. Abstract

77. Utzinger J, Keiser J, Shuhua X, et al. Combination chemotherapy of schistosomiasis in laboratory studies and clinical trials. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 May;47(5):1487-95.Full text  Abstract

78. Hua HY, Liang YS, Zhang Y, et al. The sensitivity of artesunate against Schistosoma japonicum decreased after 10 years of use in China. Parasitol Res. 2010 Sep;107(4):873-8. Abstract

79. Obonyo CO, Muok EM, Mwinzi PN. Efficacy of artesunate with sulfalene plus pyrimethamine versus praziquantel for treatment of Schistosoma mansoni in Kenyan children: an open-label randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;10(9):603-11. Abstract

80. Pérez del Villar L, Burguillo FJ, López-Abán J, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of artemisinin based therapies for the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e45867.Full text  Abstract

81. Utzinger J, N'Goran EK, N'Dri A, et al. Oral artemether for prevention of Schistosoma mansoni infection: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000 Apr 15;355(9212):1320-5. Abstract

82. Hou XY, McManus DP, Gray DJ, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of safety and efficacy of combined praziquantel and artemether treatment for acute schistosomiasis japonica in China. Bull World Health Organ. 2008 Oct;86(10):788-95.Full text  Abstract

83. Inyang-Etoh PC, Ejezie GC, Useh MF, et al. Efficacy of a combination of praziquantel and artesunate in the treatment of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009 Jan;103(1):38-44. Abstract

84. Kramer CV, Zhang F, Sinclair D, et al. Drugs for treating urinary schistosomiasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(8):CD000053.Full text  Abstract

85. King CH, Muchiri E, Ouma JH, et al. Chemotherapy-based control of schistosomiasis haematobia. IV. Impact of repeated annual chemotherapy on prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection in an endemic area of Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1991 Oct;45(4):498-508. Abstract

86. Abdel-Salam E, Ehsan A. Cystoscopic picture of Schistosoma haematobium in Egyptian children correlated to intensity of infection and morbidity. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1978 Jul;27(4):774-8. Abstract

87. Barrou B, Bitker MO, Boyer C, et al. Results of renal transplantation in patients with Schistosoma infection. J Urol. 1997 Apr;157(4):1232-5. Abstract

88. Abdel-Wahab MF, Ramzy I, Esmat G, et al. Ultrasound for detecting Schistosoma haematobium urinary tract complications: comparison with radiographic procedures. J Urol. 1992 Aug;148(2 Pt 1):346-50. Abstract

89. Christie JD, Crouse D, Kelada AB, et al. Patterns of Schistosoma haematobium egg distribution in the human lower urinary tract. III. Cancerous lower urinary tracts. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986 Jul;35(4):759-64. Abstract

90. el-Bolkainy MN, Chu EW, Ghoneim MA, et al. Cytologic detection of bladder cancer in a rural Egyptian population infested with schistosomiasis. Acta Cytol. 1982 May-Jun;26(3):303-10. Abstract

91. Badalament RA. Is the role of cystoscopy in the detection of bladder cancer really declining? J Urol. 1998 Feb;159(2):399-400. Abstract

92. Coutinho HM, Acosta LP, McGarvey ST, et al. Nutritional status improves after treatment of Schistosoma japonicum-infected children and adolescents. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):183-8.Full text  Abstract

93. King CH, Dangerfield-Cha M. The unacknowledged impact of chronic schistosomiasis. Chronic Illn. 2008 Mar;4(1):65-79. Abstract

94. AbouZahr C, Vaughan JP. Assessing the burden of sexual and reproductive ill-health: questions regarding the use of disability-adjusted life years. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(5):655-66. Abstract

95. Khalaf I, Shokeir A, Shalaby M. Urologic complications of genitourinary schistosomiasis. World J Urol. 2012 Feb;30(1):31-8. Abstract

96. Elmasalme FN, Raheem MA, Badawy A, et al. Rectosigmoid bilharzioma causing intestinal obstruction. J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Apr;32(4):631-3. Abstract

97. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 21-2001. A 31-year-old man with an apparent seizure and a mass in the right parietal lobe. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 12;345(2):126-31. Abstract

98. Lambertucci JR, Silva LC, do Amaral RS. Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of schistosomal myeloradiculopathy. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007 Sep-Oct;40(5):574-81.Full text  Abstract

99. Assaré RK, Tian-Bi YN, Yao PK, et al. Sustaining control of Schistosomiasis mansoni in Western Côte d'Ivoire: results from a SCORE study, one year after initial praziquantel administration. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Jan 20;10(1):e0004329.Full text  Abstract

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