Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

References

Key articles

Biggins SW, Angeli P, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome: 2021 practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2021 Aug;74(2):1014-48.Full text  Abstract

European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):406-60.Full text  Abstract

McGibbon A, Chen GI, Peltekian KM, et al. An evidence-based manual for abdominal paracentesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Dec;52(12):3307-15. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, et al; International Ascites Club. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. J Hepatol. 2000 Jan;32(1):142-53.Full text  Abstract

2. Runyon BA, Hoefs JC. Culture-negative neutrocytic ascites: a variant of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatology. 1984 Nov-Dec;4(6):1209-11. Abstract

3. Terg R, Levi D, Lopez P, et al. Analysis of clinical course and prognosis of culture-positive spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and neutrocytic ascites area: evidence of the same disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1992 Oct;37(10):1499-504. Abstract

4. Borzio M, Salerno F, Piantoni L, et al. Bacterial infection in patients with advanced cirrhosis: a multicentre prospective study. Dig Liver Dis. 2001 Jan-Feb;33(1):41-8. Abstract

5. Dhiman RK, Makharia JK, Jain S, et al. Ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in fulminant hepatic failure. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000 Jan;95(1):233-8. Abstract

6. Blaise M, Pateron D, Trinchet JC, et al. Systemic antibiotic therapy prevents bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Hepatology. 1994 Jul;20(1 Pt 1):34-8. Abstract

7. Bleichner G, Boulanger R, Squara P, et al. Frequency of infections in cirrhotic patients presenting with acute gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Br J Surg. 1986 Sep;73(9):724-6. Abstract

8. Evans LT, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in asymptomatic outpatients with cirrhotic ascites. Hepatology. 2003 Apr;37(4):897-901.Full text  Abstract

9. Jeffries MA, Stern MA, Gunaratnam NT, et al. Unsuspected infection is infrequent in asymptomatic outpatients with refractory ascites undergoing therapeutic paracentesis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999 Oct;94(10):2972-6. Abstract

10. Cholongitas E, Papatheodoridis GV, Lahanas A, et al. Increasing frequency of Gram-positive bacteria in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2005 Feb;25(1):57-61. Abstract

11. Campillo B, Richardet JP, Kheo T, et al. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in cirrhotic patients: impact of isolate type on prognosis and characteristics of infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Jul 1;35(1):1-10.Full text  Abstract

12. Oliveira JC, Carrera E, Petry RC, et al. High prevalence of multidrug resistant bacteria in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: is it time to change the standard antimicrobial approach? Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019;2019:6963910.Full text  Abstract

13. Al-Ghamdi H, Al-Harbi N, Mokhtar H, et al. Changes in the patterns and microbiology of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: analysis of 200 cirrhotic patients. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2019 Apr-Jun;82(2):261-6.Full text  Abstract

14. Parsi MA, Atreja A, Zein NN. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: recent data on incidence and treatment. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Jul;71(7):569-76. Abstract

15. Alexopoulou A, Papadopoulos N, Eliopoulos DG, et al. Increasing frequency of gram-positive cocci and gram-negative multidrug-resistant bacteria in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2013 Aug;33(7):975-81. Abstract

16. Piano S, Romano A, Rosi S, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: the last therapeutic challenge. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Oct;24(10):1234-7. Abstract

17. Boixeda D, De Luis DA, Aller R, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: clinical and microbiological study of 233 episodes. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1996 Dec;23(4):275-9. Abstract

18. Singh N, Wagener MM, Gayowski T. Changing epidemiology and predictors of mortality in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis at a liver transplant unit. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2003 Jun;9(6):531-7.Full text  Abstract

19. Kamani L, Mumtaz K, Ahmed US, et al. Outcomes in culture positive and culture negative ascitic fluid infections in patients with viral cirrhosis: cohort study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2008 Dec 18;8:59. Abstract

20. Espinoza-Gómez F, Newton-Sánchez O, Melnikov V, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Listeria in a patient with cirrhosis: case report [in Spanish]. Rev Med Chil. 2006 Sep;134(9):1171-4.Full text  Abstract

21. Musher DM, Nichol AC, Rueda AM. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae as a cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006 Jun;44(6):2304-6.Full text  Abstract

22. Dimopoulou A, Dimopoulou D, Christianakis E, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in a previously healthy child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013 Jun;32(6):704. Abstract

23. Brautbar A, Esayag Y, Breuer GS, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Haemophilus parainfluenzae. Isr Med Assoc J. 2007 Mar;9(3):175-6. Abstract

24. Nathanson L. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Neisseria meningitides serogroup Z. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 1993 Aug;32(8):510. Abstract

25. Lecliere S, Di Fiore F, Hervé S, et al. Spontaneous infection of ascitic fluid due to Salmonella typhimurium in a cirrhotic patient undergoing selective intestinal decontamination with norfloxacin [in French]. Presse Med. 2003 Mar 29;32(12):550-2. Abstract

26. Adhikary R, Joshi S, Venugopa RV, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by S. paratyphi A. J Assoc Physicians India. 2013 Dec;61(12):930-31. Abstract

27. Kim HM, Chon CY, Ahn SH, et al. Fatal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by Leclercia adecarboxylata in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Clin Pract. 2008 Aug;62(8):1296-8. Abstract

28. Dalamaga M, Karmaniolas K, Pantelaki M, et al. Spontaneous peritonitis caused by Leminorella grimontii. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Sep;56(1):83-5. Abstract

29. Colakoglu S, Turunc T, Taskoparan M, et al. Three cases of serious infection caused by Aerococcus urinae: a patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and two patients with bacteremia. Infection. 2008 Jun;36(3):288-90. Abstract

30. Velayos Jiménez B, Fernández Salazar L, Aller Fuente R, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Gemella morbillorum in a patient under chronic treatment with norfloxacin [in Spanish]. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;31(3):129. Abstract

31. Flores-Franco RA, Lachica-Rodriguez GN, Banuelos-Moreno L, et al. Spontaneous peritonitis attributed to actinomyces species. Ann Hepatol. 2007 Oct-Dec;6(4):276-8. Abstract

32. Gautam M, Chopra KB, Douglas DD, et al. Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in liver transplantation candidates. Liver Transpl. 2007 Nov;13(11):1582-8.Full text  Abstract

33. Wi YM, Sohn KM, Rhee JY, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Ochrobactrum anthropi: a case report. J Korean Med Sci. 2007 Apr;22(2):377-9.Full text  Abstract

34. Farmer AD, Bruckner Holt CE, Le Roux G, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis due to Arcanobacterium haemolyticum. J Infect. 2007 May;54(5):516. Abstract

35. Singh DK, Tyagi I, Saran RK, et al. Fatal spontaneous Cryptococcal peritonitis in a woman with decompensated liver cirrhosis. Acta Cytol. 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):1087-9. Abstract

36. Bal CK, Bhatia V, Khillan V, et al. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis with fungemia in patients with decompensated cirrhosis: Report of two cases. Indian J Crit Care Med. 2014 Aug;18(8):536-9.Full text  Abstract

37. Alavi K, Atla PR, Haq T, et al. Coccidioidomycosis masquerading as eosinophilic ascites. Case Rep Gastrointest Med. 2015;2015:891910.Full text  Abstract

38. Hwang SY, Yu SJ, Lee JH, et al. Spontaneous fungal peritonitis: a severe complication in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;33(2):259-64. Abstract

39. Ferreira AO, Martins LN, Marinho RT, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis by Brucella in a cirrhotic patient. BMJ Case Rep. 2013;2013:bcr2013008629.Full text  Abstract

40. Sim JS, Kim HS, Oh KJ, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with sepsis caused by Enterococcus hirae. J Korean Med Sci. 2012 Dec;27(12):1598-600.Full text  Abstract

41. Narciso-Schiavon JL, Borgonovo A, Marques PC, et al. Enterococcus casseliflavus and Enterococcus gallinarum as causative agents of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ann Hepatol. 2015 Mar-Apr;14(2):270-2Full text  Abstract

42. Dlamini NR, Bhamjee A, Levick P, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and pneumonia caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012 Jul 23;6(7):588-91.Full text  Abstract

43. Patel S, Gandhi D, Mehta V, et al. Plesiomonas shigelloides : an extremely rare cause of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2016 Mar;79(1):52-3. Abstract

44. Chinnock B, Fox C, Hendey GW. Gram's stain of peritoneal fluid is rarely helpful in the evaluation of the ascites patient. Ann Emerg Med. 2009 Jul;54(1):78-82. Abstract

45. Bert F, Valla D, Moreau R, et al. Viridans group streptococci causing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia in patients with end-stage liver disease. Liver Transpl. 2008 May;14(5):710-1.Full text  Abstract

46. Ricart E, Soriano G, Novella MT, et al. Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid versus cefotaxime in the therapy of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. J Hepatol. 2000 Apr;32(4):596-602. Abstract

47. Strauss E, Caly WR. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a therapeutic update. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006 Apr;4(2):249-60. Abstract

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51. Terg R, Fassio E, Guevara M, et al. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Hepatol. 2008 May;48(5):774-9. Abstract

52. Bruns T, Lutz P, Stallmach A, et al. Low ascitic fluid protein does not indicate an increased risk for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in current cohorts. J Hepatol. 2015 Aug;63(2):527-8.Full text  Abstract

53. Mo S, Bendtsen F, Wiese SS, et al. Low ascitic fluid total protein levels is not associated to the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cohort of 274 patients with cirrhosis. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2018 Feb;53(2):200-5.Full text  Abstract

54. Fernandez J, Navasa M, Gomez J, et al. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: epidemiological changes with invasive procedures and norfloxacin prophylaxis. Hepatology. 2002 Jan;35(1):140-8. Abstract

55. Navasa M, Rimola A, Rodés J. Bacterial infections in liver disease. Semin Liver Dis. 1997;17(4):323-33. Abstract

56. Yildirim B, Sezgin N, Sari R, et al. Complement and immunoglobulin levels in serum and ascitic fluid of patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, malignant ascites, and tuberculous peritonitis. South Med J. 2002 Oct;95(10):1158-62. Abstract

57. Saab S, Hernandez JC, Chi AC, et al. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis reduces spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurrence and improves short-term survival in cirrhosis: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr;104(4):993-1001. Abstract

58. Loomba R, Wesley R, Bain A, et al. Role of fluoroquinolones in the primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009 Apr;7(4):487-93. Abstract

59. Cohen MJ, Sahar T, Benenson S, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients with ascites, without gastro-intestinal bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD004791.Full text  Abstract

60. Segarra-Newnham M, Henneman A. Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients without gastrointestinal bleeding. Ann Pharmacother. 2010 Dec;44(12):1946-54. Abstract

61. Biggins SW, Angeli P, Garcia-Tsao G, et al. Diagnosis, evaluation, and management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and hepatorenal syndrome: 2021 practice guidance by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2021 Aug;74(2):1014-48.Full text  Abstract

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63. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA updates warnings for oral and injectable fluoroquinolone antibiotics due to disabling side effects. March 2018 [internet publication].Full text

64. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: FDA warns about increased risk of ruptures or tears in the aorta blood vessel with fluoroquinolone antibiotics in certain patients. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

65. Komolafe O, Roberts D, Freeman SC, et al. Antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in people with liver cirrhosis: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 16;1:CD013125.Full text  Abstract

66. Goel A, Rahim U, Nguyen LH, et al. Systematic review with meta-analysis: rifaximin for the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Dec;46(11-12):1029-36.Full text  Abstract

67. Sidhu GS, Go A, Attar BM, et al. Rifaximin versus norfloxacin for prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review. BMJ Open Gastroenterol. 2017;4(1):e000154.Full text  Abstract

68. Facciorusso A, Papagiouvanni I, Cela M, et al. Comparative efficacy of long-term antibiotic treatments in the primary prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2019 Aug;39(8):1448-58.Full text  Abstract

69. Wang W, Yang J, Liu C, et al. Norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and rifaximin for the prevention of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a network meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Aug;31(8):905-10.Full text  Abstract

70. Senzolo M, Cholongitas E, Burra P, et al. Beta-blockers protect against spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients: a meta-analysis. Liver Int. 2009 Sep;29(8):1189-93. Abstract

71. Villanueva C, Albillos A, Genescà J, et al. β blockers to prevent decompensation of cirrhosis in patients with clinically significant portal hypertension (PREDESCI): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2019 Apr 20;393(10181):1597-608.Full text  Abstract

72. Mandorfer M, Bota S, Schwabl P, et al. Nonselective beta blockers increase risk for hepatorenal syndrome and death in patients with cirrhosis and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun;146(7):1680-90.e1.Full text  Abstract

73. Trikudanathan G, Israel J, Cappa J, et al. Association between proton-pump inhibitors and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2011 Jun;65(6):674-8. Abstract

74. Campbell MS, Obstein K, Reddy KR, et al. Association between proton pump inhibitor use and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Dig Dis Sci. 2008 Feb;53(2):394-8. Abstract

75. Terg R, Casciato P, Garbe C, et al; Study Group of Cirrhosis Complications of the Argentine Association for the Study of Liver Disease. Proton pump inhibitor therapy does not increase the incidence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhosis: a multicenter prospective study. J Hepatol. 2015 May;62(5):1056-60. Abstract

76. Makharia GK, Sharma BC, Bhasin DK, et al. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a patient with gastric carcinoma. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1998 Oct;27(3):269-70. Abstract

77. Chinnock B, Afarian H, Minnigan H, et al. Physician clinical impression does not rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in patients undergoing emergency department paracentesis. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Sep;52(3):268-73. Abstract

78. Chinnock B, Hendey GW, Minnigan H, et al. Clinical impression and ascites appearance do not rule out bacterial peritonitis. J Emerg Med. 2013 May;44(5):903-9. Abstract

79. McGibbon A, Chen GI, Peltekian KM, et al. An evidence-based manual for abdominal paracentesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Dec;52(12):3307-15. Abstract

80. Nazeer SF, Dewbre H, Miller AH. Ultrasound-assisted paracentesis performed by emergency physicians versus the traditional technique: a prospective, randomized study. Am J Emerg Med. 2005 May;23(3):363-7. Abstract

81. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines for the management of patients with decompensated cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2018 Aug;69(2):406-60.Full text  Abstract

82. European Association for the Study of the Liver. EASL clinical practice guidelines on the management of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and hepatorenal syndrome in cirrhosis. J Hepatol. 2010;53(3):397-417.Full text  Abstract

83. Aithal GP, Palaniyappan N, China L, et al. Guidelines on the management of ascites in cirrhosis. Gut. 2021 Jan;70(1):9-29.Full text  Abstract

84. Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Thorpe KE, et al. Does this patient have bacterial peritonitis or portal hypertension? How do I perform a paracentesis and analyze the results? JAMA. 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1166-78.Full text  Abstract

85. Rimola A, Garcia-Tsao G, Navasa M, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a consensus document. International Ascites Club. J Hepatol. 2000;32(1):142-53. Abstract

86. Bernardi M, Carceni P, Navickis RJ, et al. Albumin infusion in patients undergoing large-volume paracentesis: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Hepatology. 2012 Apr;55(4):1172-81.Full text  Abstract

87. Rosenblatt R, Tafesh Z, Shen N, et al. Early Paracentesis in high-risk hospitalized patients: time for a new quality indicator. Am J Gastroenterol. 2019 Dec;114(12):1863-9.Full text  Abstract

88. Angeloni S, Nicolini G, Merli M, et al. Validation of automated blood cell counter for the determination of polymorphonuclear cell count in the ascitic fluid of cirrhotic patients with or without spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Aug;98(8):1844-8. Abstract

89. Riggio O, Angeloni S, Parente A, et al. Accuracy of the automated cell counters for management of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Oct 7;14(37):5689-94.Full text  Abstract

90. Cereto F, Genesca J, Segura R. Validation of automated blood cell counters for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Jul;99(7):1400. Abstract

91. Runyon BA, Canawati HN, Akriviadis EA. Optimization of ascitic fluid culture technique. Gastroenterology. 1988 Nov;95(5):1351-5.Full text  Abstract

92. Chinnock B, Hendey GW. Can clear ascitic fluid appearance rule out spontaneous bacterial peritonitis? Am J Emerg Med. 2007 Oct;25(8):934-7. Abstract

93. Wong CL, Holroyd-Leduc J, Thorpe KE, et al. Does this patient have bacterial peritonitis or portal hypertension? How do I perform a paracentesis and analyze the results? 2008 Mar 12;299(10):1166-78. Abstract

94. Thévenot T, Briot C, Macé V, et al; CFEHTP, ANGH and the PerDRISLA Study Group. The Periscreen strip is highly efficient for the exclusion of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic outpatients. Am J Gastroenterol. 2016 Oct;111(10):1402-9. Abstract

95. Chinnock B, Woolard RE, Hendey GW, et al. Sensitivity of a bedside reagent strip for the detection of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in ED patients with ascites. Am J Emerg Med. 2019 Dec;37(12):2155-8.Full text  Abstract

96. Koulaouzidis A, Leontiadis GI, Abdullah M, et al. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a systematic review. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Nov;20(11):1055-60. Abstract

97. Parsi MA, Saadeh SN, Zein NN, et al. Ascitic fluid lactoferrin for diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 2008 Sep;135(3):803-7. Abstract

98. Yellapu RK, Rajekar H, Martin JD, et al. Pneumatosis intestinalis and mesenteric venous gas - a manifestation of bacterascites in a patient with cirrhosis. J Postgrad Med. 2011 Jan-Mar:57(1);42-3.Full text  Abstract

99. McGibbon A, Chen GI, Peltekian KM, et al. An evidence-based manual for abdominal paracentesis. Dig Dis Sci. 2007 Dec;52(12):3307-15. Abstract

100. Koulaouzidis A, Bhat S, Saeed AA. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Mar 7;15(9):1042-9.Full text  Abstract

101. Lin CH, Shih FY, Ma MH, et al. Should bleeding tendency deter abdominal paracentesis? Dig Liver Dis. 2005 Dec;37(12):946-51. Abstract

102. Runyon BA, Hoefs JC. Ascitic fluid analysis in the differentiation of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis from gastrointestinal tract perforation into ascitic fluid. Hepatology. 1984 May-Jun;4(3):447-50. Abstract

103. Zapater P, Frances R, Gonzalez-Navaja JM, et al. Serum and ascitic fluid bacterial DNA: a new independent prognostic factor in non-infected patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2008 Dec:48(6);1924-31.Full text  Abstract

104. Rogers GB, Russell LE, Preston PG, et al. Characterisation of bacteria in ascites -reporting the potential of culture-independent, molecular analysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 May;29(5):533-41. Abstract

105. Appenrodt B, Lehmann LE, Thyssen L, et al. Is detection of bacterial DNA in ascitic fluid of clinical relevance? Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Dec;22(12):1487-94. Abstract

106. Yuan LY, Ke ZQ, Wang M, et al. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in the diagnosis and prediction of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis associated with chronic severe hepatitis B. Ann Lab Med. 2013 Nov;33(6):449-54.Full text  Abstract

107. Cekin Y, Cekin AH, Duman A, et al. The role of serum procalcitonin levels in predicting ascitic fluid infection in hospitalized cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. Int J Med Sci. 2013 Aug 20;10(10):1367-74.Full text  Abstract

108. Su DH, Zhuo C, Liao K, et al. Value of serum procalcitonin levels in predicting spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2013 Jun;60(124):641-6. Abstract

109. Wu SS, Lin OS, Chin YY, et al. Ascitic fluid carcinoembryonic antigen and alkaline phosphatase levels for the differentiation of primary from secondary bacterial peritonitis with intestinal perforation. J Hepatol. 2001 Feb;34(2):215-21. Abstract

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111. Uygur-Bayramicli O, Dabak G, Dabak R. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2003 May;9(5):1098-101.Full text  Abstract

112. Riquelme A, Calvo M, Salech F, et al. Value of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in ascitic fluid for the diagnosis of tuberculosis peritonitis: a meta-analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2006 Sep;40(8):705-10. Abstract

113. Runyon BA. Amylase levels in ascitic fluid. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1987 Apr;9(2):172-4. Abstract

114. Bracher GA, Manocha AP, DeBanto JR, et al. Endoscopic pancreatic duct stenting to treat pancreatic ascites. Gastrointest Endosc. 1999 Jun;49(6):710-15. Abstract

115. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Intensive Care Med. 2021 Nov;47(11):1181-247.Full text  Abstract

116. Felisart J, Rimola A, Arroyo V, et al. Cefotaxime is more effective than is ampicillin-tobramycin in cirrhotics with severe infections. Hepatology. 1985 May-Jun;5(3):457-62. Abstract

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118. Gomez-Jimenez J, Ribera E, Gasser I, et al. Randomized trial comparing ceftriaxone with cefonicid for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993;37:1587-92.Full text  Abstract

119. Figueiredo FAF, Coelho HSM, Alvariz RG, et al. Randomized trial comparing intravenous ceftriaxone with oral cefixime for treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in cirrhotic patients: pilot study. Presented at: 5th United European Gastroenterology Week, Paris, 1996.

120. Navasa M, Follo A, Llovet JM, et al. Randomized, comparative study of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Gastroenterology. 1996 Oct;111(4):1011-7. Abstract

121. Tuncer I, Topcu N, Durmus A, et al. Oral ciprofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime and ceftriaxone in the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Hepatogastroenterology. 2003;50:1426-30. Abstract

122. Piano S, Fasolato S, Salinas F, et al. The empirical antibiotic treatment of nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: Results of a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Hepatology. 2016 Apr;63(4):1299-309. Abstract

123. Jindal A, Kumar M, Bhadoria AS, et al. A randomized open label study of 'imipenem vs. cefepime' in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Liver Int. 2016 May;36(5):677-87. Abstract

124. Sheikhbahaei S, Abdollahi A, Hafezi-Nejad N, et al. Patterns of antimicrobial resistance in the causative organisms of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a single centre, six-year experience of 1981 samples. Int J Hepatol. 2014;2014:917856.Full text  Abstract

125. Ariza X, Castellote J, Lora-Tamayo J, et al. Risk factors for resistance to ceftriaxone and its impact on mortality in community, healthcare and nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. J Hepatol. 2012 Apr;56(4):825-32. Abstract

126. Novovic S, Semb S, Olsen H, et al. First-line treatment with cephalosporins in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis provides poor antibiotic coverage. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb;47(2):212-6. Abstract

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