Asthma in children

References

Key articles

Global Initiative for Asthma. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention (2021 update). 2021 [internet publication].Full text

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of asthma. Aug 2007 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Food allergy in under 19s: assessment and diagnosis. Feb 2011 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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14. Wu AC, Tantisira K, Li L, et al; Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Predictors of symptoms are different from predictors of severe exacerbations from asthma in children. Chest. 2011 Jul;140(1):100-7.Full text  Abstract

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22. Sears MR, Greene JM, Willan AR, et al. A longitudinal, population-based, cohort study of childhood asthma followed to adulthood. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 9;349(15):1414-22.Full text  Abstract

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24. Feng H, Xun P, Pike K, et al. In utero exposure to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze, and respiratory tract infections: A meta-analysis of birth cohort studies. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 May;139(5):1508-17. Abstract

25. van de Loo KF, van Gelder MM, Roukema J, et al. Prenatal maternal psychological stress and childhood asthma and wheezing: a meta-analysis. Eur Respir J. 2016 Jan;47(1):133-46.Full text  Abstract

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28. Payne DN, Rogers AV, Adelroth E, et al. Early thickening of the reticular basement membrane in children with difficult asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Jan 1;167(1):78-82.Full text  Abstract

29. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Food allergy in under 19s: assessment and diagnosis. Feb 2011 [internet publication].Full text

30. Lowe AJ, Carlin JB, Bennett CM, et al. Do boys do the atopic march while girls dawdle? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 May;121(5):1190-5. Abstract

31. Illi S, von Mutius E, Lau S, et al. Perennial allergen sensitisation early in life and chronic asthma in children: a birth cohort study. Lancet. 2006 Aug 26;368(9537):763-70. Abstract

32. Oswald H, Phelan PD, Lanigan A, et al. Childhood asthma and lung function in mid-adult life. Pediatr Pulmonol. 1997 Jan;23(1):14-20. Abstract

33. Peat JK, Tovey E, Gray EJ, et al. Asthma severity and morbidity in a population sample of Sydney schoolchildren: part II importance of house dust mite allergens. Aust N Z J Med. 1994 Jun;24(3):270-6. Abstract

34. von Mutius E, Nicolai T. Familial aggregation of asthma in a South Bavarian population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1996 Apr;153(4 Pt 1):1266-72. Abstract

35. Achakulwisut P, Brauer M, Hystad P, et al. Global, national, and urban burdens of paediatric asthma incidence attributable to ambient NO2 pollution: estimates from global datasets. Lancet Planet Health. 2019 Apr;3(4):e166-78.Full text  Abstract

36. Garcia E, Berhane KT, Islam T, et al. Association of changes in air quality with incident asthma in children in California, 1993-2014. JAMA. 2019 May 21;321(19):1906-15.Full text  Abstract

37. Renzetti G, Silvestre G, D'Amario C, et al. Less air pollution leads to rapid reduction of airway inflammation and improved airway function in asthmatic children. Pediatrics. 2009 Mar;123(3):1051-8. Abstract

38. Burns J, Boogaard H, Polus S, et al. Interventions to reduce ambient particulate matter air pollution and their effect on health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 May 20;(5):CD010919.Full text  Abstract

39. Papoutsakis C, Priftis KN, Drakouli M, et al. Childhood overweight/obesity and asthma: is there a link? A systematic review of recent epidemiologic evidence. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2013 Jan;113(1):77-105. Abstract

40. Moreira A, Bonini M, Garcia-Larsen V, et al. Weight loss interventions in asthma: EAACI evidence-based clinical practice guideline (part I). Allergy. 2013 Apr;68(4):425-39. Abstract

41. Azizpour Y, Delpisheh A, Montazeri Z, et al. Effect of childhood BMI on asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case-control studies. BMC Pediatr. 2018 Apr 26;18(1):143.Full text  Abstract

42. Lai T, Wu M, Liu J, et al. Acid-suppressive drug use during pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2018 Feb;141(2):e20170889.Full text  Abstract

43. Arshad SH, Bateman B, Sadeghnejad A, et al. Prevention of allergic disease during childhood by allergen avoidance: the Isle of Wight prevention study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007 Feb;119(2):307-13. Abstract

44. Chan-Yeung M, Ferguson A, Watson W, et al. The Canadian Childhood Asthma Primary Prevention Study: outcomes at 7 years of age. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Jul;116(1):49-55. Abstract

45. Marks G, Toelle B, Ng K, et al. Eight year outcomes of HDM avoidance and diet fatty acid interventions in a high risk birth cohort: the childhood asthma prevention study. European Respiratory Society Annual Congress, Berlin, 2008: 2083.

46. Marks GB, Mihrshahi S, Kemp AS, et al. Prevention of asthma during the first 5 years of life: a randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Jul;118(1):53-61. Abstract

47. Kramer MS, Matush L, Vanilovich I, et al. Effect of prolonged and exclusive breast feeding on risk of allergy and asthma: cluster randomised trial. BMJ. 2007 Oct 20;335(7624):815.Full text  Abstract

48. D'Vaz N, Meldrum SJ, Dunstan JA, et al. Postnatal fish oil supplementation in high-risk infants to prevent allergy: randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct;130(4):674-82. Abstract

49. Azad MB, Coneys JG, Kozyrskyj AL, et al. Probiotic supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of asthma and wheeze: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Dec 4;347:f6471.Full text  Abstract

50. Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, et al. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics. 2013 Sep;132(3):e666-76.Full text  Abstract

51. British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma. A national clinical guideline. Jul 2019 [internet publication].Full text

52. Osborn DA, Sinn JK, Jones LJ. Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 19;(10):CD003664.Full text  Abstract

53. Papamichael MM, Itsiopoulos C, Susanto NH, et al. Does adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern reduce asthma symptoms in children? A systematic review of observational studies. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Oct;20(15):2722-34.Full text  Abstract

54. Papamichael MM, Shrestha SK, Itsiopoulos C, et al. The role of fish intake on asthma in children: a meta-analysis of observational studies. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018 Jun;29(4):350-60. Abstract

55. Nurmatov U, Devereux G, Sheikh A. Nutrients and foods for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar;127(3):724-33.e1-30. Abstract

56. Brustad N, Eliasen AU, Stokholm J, et al. High-dose vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and asthma in offspring at the age of 6 years. JAMA. 2019 Mar 12;321(10):1003-5.Full text  Abstract

57. Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Fiocchi A, Pawankar R, et al. World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Vitamin D. World Allergy Organ J. 2016 May 17;9:17.Full text  Abstract

58. Greer FR, Sicherer SH, Burks AW. Effects of early nutritional interventions on the development of atopic disease in infants and children: the role of maternal dietary restriction, breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas. Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;121(1):183-91.Full text  Abstract

59. Muche-Borowski C, Kopp M, Reese I, et al. Allergy prevention. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2009 Sep;106(39):625-31.Full text  Abstract

60. Maas T, Kaper J, Sheikh A, et al. Mono and multifaceted inhalant and/or food allergen reduction interventions for preventing asthma in children at high risk of developing asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(3):CD006480. Abstract

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62. Schindler T, Sinn JK, Osborn DA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy for the prevention of allergy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Oct 28;10:CD010112.Full text  Abstract

63. Klemens CM, Berman DR, Mozurkewich EL. The effect of perinatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on inflammatory markers and allergic diseases: a systematic review. BJOG. 2011 Jul;118(8):916-25. Abstract

64. Arnoldussen DL, Linehan M, Sheikh A. BCG vaccination and allergy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Jan;127(1):246-53. Abstract

65. Murray CS, Woodcock A, Langley SJ, et al. Secondary prevention of asthma by the use of Inhaled Fluticasone propionate in Wheezy INfants (IFWIN): double-blind, randomised, controlled study. Lancet. 2006 Aug 26;368(9537):754-62. Abstract

66. Guilbert TW, Morgan WJ, Zeiger RS, et al. Long-term inhaled corticosteroids in preschool children at high risk for asthma. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 11;354(19):1985-97.Full text  Abstract

67. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Asthma: diagnosis, monitoring and chronic asthma management NICE guideline NG80. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

68. Castro-Rodríguez JA, Holberg CJ, Wright AL, et al. A clinical index to define risk of asthma in young children with recurrent wheezing. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Oct;162(4 Pt 1):1403-6.Full text  Abstract

69. Guilbert TW, Morgan WJ, Zeiger RS, et al. Atopic characteristics of children with recurrent wheezing at high risk for the development of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004 Dec;114(6):1282-7. Abstract

70. Chang TS, Lemanske RF Jr, Guilbert TW, et al. Evaluation of the modified asthma predictive index in high-risk preschool children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2013 Mar;1(2):152-6.Full text  Abstract

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72. Quanjer PH, Stanojevic S, Cole TJ, et al. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations. Eur Respir J. 2012 Dec;40(6):1324-43.Full text  Abstract

73. Stanojevic S, Wade A, Stocks J, et al. Reference ranges for spirometry across all ages: a new approach. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 1;177(3):253-60.Full text  Abstract

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75. British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. British guideline on the management of asthma. July 2019 [internet publication].Full text

76. Zimmerman B, Silverman FS, Tarlo SM, et al. Induced sputum: comparison of postinfectious cough with allergic asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2000 Mar;105(3):495-9. Abstract

77. Lex C, Ferreira F, Zacharasiewicz A, et al. Airway eosinophilia in children with severe asthma: predictive values of noninvasive tests. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Dec 15;174(12):1286-91. Abstract

78. Chang AB, Clark R, Sloots TP, et al. A 5- versus 3-day course of oral corticosteroids for children with asthma exacerbations who are not hospitalised: a randomised controlled trial. Med J Aust. 1996 Jun;23(3):199-203. Abstract

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82. Singer F, Luchsinger I, Inci D, et al. Exhaled nitric oxide in symptomatic children at preschool age predicts later asthma. Allergy. 2013 Apr;68(4):531-8. Abstract

83. Caudri D, Wijga AH, Hoekstra MO, et al. Prediction of asthma in symptomatic preschool children using exhaled nitric oxide, Rint and specific IgE. Thorax. 2010 Sep;65(9):801-7.Full text  Abstract

84. Lougheed MD, Lemiere C, Ducharme FM, et al. Canadian Thoracic Society 2012 guideline update: diagnosis and management of asthma in preschoolers, children and adults. Can Respir J. 2012 Mar-Apr;19(2):127-64. Erratum in: Can Respir J. 2013 May-Jun;20(3):185.Full text  Abstract

85. Expert Panel Working Group of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) administered and coordinated National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee (NAEPPCC), Cloutier MM, Baptist AP, et al. 2020 focused updates to the asthma management guidelines: a report from the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program Coordinating Committee Expert Panel Working Group. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 Dec;146(6):1217-70.Full text  Abstract

86. Scott M, Raza A, Karmaus W, et al. Influence of atopy and asthma on exhaled nitric oxide in an unselected birth cohort study. Thorax. 2010 Mar;65(3):258-62.Full text  Abstract

87. Jackson DJ, Virnig CM, Gangnon RE, et al. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements are most closely associated with allergic sensitization in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Nov;124(5):949-53.Full text  Abstract

88. Petsky HL, Cates CJ, Lasserson TJ, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis: tailoring asthma treatment on eosinophilic markers (exhaled nitric oxide or sputum eosinophils). Thorax. 2012 Mar;67(3):199-208. Abstract

89. Gomersal T, Harnan S, Essat M, et al. A systematic review of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in the routine management of childhood asthma. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016 Mar;51(3):316-28. Abstract

90. Fielding S, Pijnenburg M, de Jongste JC, et al. Change in FEV1 and Feno measurements as predictors of future asthma outcomes in children. Chest. 2019 Feb;155(2):331-41.Full text  Abstract

91. Nuijsink MH. Long-term asthma treatment guided by airway hyperresponsiveness in children: A randomised controlled trial. Eur Respir J. 2007 Sep;30(3):457-66. Abstract

92. Fielding S, Pijnenburg M, de Jongste J, et al. What is a clinically meaningful change in exhaled nitric oxide for children with asthma? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 Mar;55(3):599-606. Abstract

93. Galant SP, Komarow HD, Shin HW, et al. The case for impulse oscillometry in the management of asthma in children and adults. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2017 Jun;118(6):664-71. Abstract

94. Adams NP, Bestall JC, Lasserson TJ, Fluticasone versus placebo for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;(4):CD003135. Abstract

95. Miller MR, Hankinson J, Brusasco V, et al. ATS/ERS Task Force. Standardisation of spirometry. Eur Respir J. 2005 Aug;26(2):319-38.Full text  Abstract

96. Godfrey S, Springer C, Bar-Yishay E, et al. Cut-off points defining normal and asthmatic bronchial reactivity to exercise and inhalation challenges in children and young adults. Eur Respir J. 1999 Sep;14(3):659-68.Full text  Abstract

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104. Shapiro AJ, Davis SD, Polineni D, et al. Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia. An official American Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Jun 15;197(12):e24-39.Full text  Abstract

105. Kantar A, Chang AB, Shields MD, et al. ERS statement on protracted bacterial bronchitis in children. Eur Respir J. 2017 Aug 24;50(2):1602139.Full text  Abstract

106. Chang AB, Oppenheimer JJ, Weinberger MM, et al. Management of children with chronic wet cough and protracted bacterial bronchitis: CHEST guideline and expert panel report. Chest. 2017 Apr;151(4):884-90.Full text  Abstract

107. Saito J, Harris WT, Gelfond J, et al. Physiologic, bronchoscopic, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid findings in young children with recurrent wheeze and cough. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2006 Aug;41(8):709-19. Abstract

108. Strunk RC, Sternberg AL, Szefler SJ, et al. Long-term budesonide or nedocromil treatment, once discontinued, does not alter the course of mild to moderate asthma in children and adolescents. J Pediatr. 2009 May;154(5):682-7.Full text  Abstract

109. Lemanske RF Jr, Mauger DT, Sorkness CA, et al. Step-up therapy for children with uncontrolled asthma receiving inhaled corticosteroids. N Engl J Med. 2010 Mar 18;362(11):975-85.Full text  Abstract

110. Calpin C, Macarthur C, Stephens D, et al. Effectiveness of prophylactic inhaled steroids in childhood asthma: a systemic review of the literature. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar 18;362(11):975-85. Abstract

111. Adams NP, Bestall JC, Jones P, et al. Fluticasone at different doses for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Oct 8;2008(4):CD003534.Full text  Abstract

112. Abdullah AK, Khan S. Evidence-based selection of inhaled corticosteroid for treatment of chronic asthma. J Asthma. 2007 Jan-Feb;44(1):1-12. Abstract

113. Rohatagi S, Luo Y, Shen L, et al. Protein binding and its potential for eliciting minimal systemic side effects with a novel inhaled corticosteroid, ciclesonide. Am J Ther. 2005 May;12(3):201-9. Abstract

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115. Verberne AA, Frost C, Duiverman EJ, et al; The Dutch Asthma Study Group. Addition of salmeterol versus doubling the dose of beclomethasone in children with asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Jul;158(1):213-9.Full text  Abstract

116. Lasserson TJ, Cates CK, Jones AB, et al. Fluticasone versus 'extrafine' HFA-beclomethasone dipropionate for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD005309.Full text  Abstract

117. van Aalderen WM, Price D, De Baets FM, et al. Beclometasone dipropionate extrafine aerosol versus fluticasone propionate in children with asthma. Respir Med. 2007 Jul;101(7):1585-93. Abstract

118. Shapiro GG, Tattoni DS, Kelley VC, et al. Growth, pulmonary, and endocrine function in chronic asthma patients on daily and alternate-day adrenocorticosteroid therapy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1976 May;57(5):430-9. Abstract

119. Raissy HH, Sternberg AL, Williams P, et al. Risk of cataracts in the Childhood Asthma Management Program Cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010 Aug;126(2):389-92.Full text  Abstract

120. Bhagat RG, Chai H. Development of posterior subcapsular cataracts in asthmatic children. Pediatrics. 1984 May;73(5):626-30. Abstract

121. Powell H, Gibson PG. High dose versus low dose inhaled corticosteroid as initial starting dose for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Apr;2004(2):CD004109.Full text  Abstract

122. Cazeiro C, Silva C, Mayer S, et al. Inhaled corticosteroids and respiratory infections in children with asthma: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2017 Mar;139(3).Full text  Abstract

123. The Childhood Asthma Management Program Research Group. Long-term effects of budesonide or nedocromil in children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 12;343:1054-63.Full text  Abstract

124. Sharek PJ, Bergman DA, Ducharme FM. Beclomethasone for asthma in children: effects on linear growth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1999 Jul;1999(3):CD001282.Full text  Abstract

125. Guilbert TW, Mauger DT, Allen DB, et al; Childhood Asthma Research and Education Network of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Growth of preschool children at high risk for asthma 2 years after discontinuation of fluticasone. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Nov;128(5):956-63.e1-7.Full text  Abstract

126. Kramer S, Rottier BL, Scholten RJ, et al. Ciclesonide versus other inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 Feb 28;(2):CD010352.Full text  Abstract

127. Daley-Yates PT. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Sep;80(3):372-80.Full text  Abstract

128. Global Initiative for Asthma. Pocket guide for asthma management and prevention (for adults and children older than 5 years). 2020 [internet publication].Full text

129. Kelly HW, Van Natta ML, Covar RA, et al. CAMP Research Group. The effect of long-term corticosteroid use on bone mineral density in children: a prospective longitudinal assessment in the childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) study. Pediatrics. 2008 Jul;122(1):e53-61.Full text  Abstract

130. Aljebab F, Choonara I, Conroy S. Long-course oral corticosteroid toxicity in children. Arch Dis Child. 2016 Sep;101(9):e2. Abstract

131. Chauhan BF, Chartrand C, Ni Chroinin M, et al. Addition of long-acting beta2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 24;(11):CD007949. Abstract

132. Edwards SJ, von Maltzahn R, Naya IP, et al. Budesonide/formoterol for maintenance and reliever therapy of asthma: A meta analysis of randomised controlled trials. Int J Clin Pract. 2010 Apr;64(5):619-27. Abstract

133. Wechsler ME, Szefler SJ, Ortega VE, et al. Step-up therapy in black children and adults with poorly controlled asthma. N Engl J Med. 2019 Sep 26;381(13):1227-39.Full text  Abstract

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