Paediatric sleep disorders are very common, affecting up to one third of all children.
Most children with sleep disorders (e.g., with behavioural insomnia of childhood) do not require pharmacological treatment, and can be managed with behavioural and environmental interventions.
Obstructive sleep apnoea affects up to 4% of children. It is specifically associated with deleterious neurocognitive, developmental, and behavioural outcomes in children. Adenotonsillectomy is generally the first line of therapy and can be associated with reversal of some of these adverse sequelae.
Relevant disorders to this monograph include behavioural insomnia of childhood, obstructive sleep apnoea, narcolepsy, delayed sleep phase disorder/syndrome (DSPD/DSPS), and inadequate sleep hygiene.
Paediatric sleep disturbances are very common, with a prevalence of 25% to 37%.  Most involve difficulties initiating and maintaining sleep because of behavioural insomnia of childhood (sleep association and/or limit-setting disorder), insufficient sleep, poor sleep hygiene, delayed sleep phase disorder/syndrome, and other circadian rhythm disorders.  Obstructive sleep apnoea is also a common and under-recognised problem that is present in 1% to 4% of children.  Other sleep disorders bringing children to medical attention include hypersomnolence, movement disorders, and narcolepsy. This monograph will concentrate on behavioural disorders and obstructive sleep apnoea of childhood.
Associate Medical Director
Center for Pediatric Sleep Disorders
Boston Children's Hospital
Assistant Professor of Pediatrics
Harvard Medical School
DR declares that he has no competing interests.
Consultant in Paediatric Neurodisability
Evelina Children's Hospital
St Thomas' Hospital
PG is lead applicant on the ongoing MENDS trial, which is concerned with the use of melatonin in children with neurodevelopmental disorders and impaired sleep.
Associate Professor of Pediatrics
Division of Pediatric Pulmonary & Sleep Medicine
University of Chicago
LKG is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
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