Assessment of maculopapular rash

References

Key articles

Cherry JD. Parvovirus infections in children and adults. Adv Pediatr. 1999;46:245-69. Abstract

Elzagallaai AA, Knowles SR, Rieder MJ, et al. Patch testing for the diagnosis of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2009;32(5):391-408. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Resuscitation Council UK. Emergency treatment of anaphylactic reactions: Guidelines for healthcare providers. May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

2. Lott C, Truhlář A, Alfonzo A, et al. European Resuscitation Council Guidelines 2021: Cardiac arrest in special circumstances. Resuscitation. 2021 Apr;161:152-219.Full text  Abstract

3. Ijaz N, McMullen E, Singh M. Cutaneous drug rashes. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2015 Nov;76(11):C166-9. Abstract

4. Modi A, Desai M, Shah S, et al. Analysis of cutaneous adverse drug reactions reported at the Regional ADR Monitoring Center. Indian J Dermatol. 2019 May-Jun;64(3):250.Full text  Abstract

5. Deng Q, Fang X, Zeng Q, et al. Severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions of Chinese inpatients: a meta-analysis. An Bras Dermatol. 2017 May-Jun;92(3):345-9.Full text  Abstract

6. Valeyrie-Allanore L, Sassolas B, Roujeau JC. Drug-induced skin, nail and hair disorders. Drug Saf. 2007;30(11):1011-30. Abstract

7. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Drug allergy: diagnosis and management. September 2014 [internet publication].Full text

8. Bigby M. Rates of cutaneous reactions to drugs. Arch Dermatol. 2001 Jun;137(6):765-70. Abstract

9. Böhm R, Proksch E, Schwarz T, et al. Drug hypersensitivity. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2018 Jul 23;115(29-30):501-12.Full text  Abstract

10. Bousquet PJ, Kvedariene V, Co-Minh HB, et al. Clinical presentation and time course in hypersensitivity reactions to beta-lactams. Allergy. 2007 Aug;62(8):872-6. Abstract

11. Plachouri KM, Vryzaki E, Georgiou S. Cutaneous adverse events of immune checkpoint inhibitors: a summarized overview. Curr Drug Saf. 2019;14(1):14-20. Abstract

12. Tan EH, Chan A. Evidence-based treatment options for the management of skin toxicities associated with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Oct;43(10):1658-66. Abstract

13. Rosado Ingelmo A, Doña Diaz I, Cabañas Moreno R, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis and management of hypersensitivity reactions to contrast media. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2016;26(3):144-55.Full text  Abstract

14. Thong BY, Tan TC. Epidemiology and risk factors for drug allergy. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 May;71(5):684-700.Full text  Abstract

15. Brandt O, Bircher AJ. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to oral and parenteral drugs. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2017 Nov;15(11):1111-32.Full text  Abstract

16. Blumenthal KG, Peter JG, Trubiano JA, et al. Antibiotic allergy. Lancet. 2019 Jan 12;393(10167):183-98.Full text  Abstract

17. Dodiuk-Gad RP, Chung WH, Valeyrie-Allanore L, et al. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis: an update. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015 Dec;16(6):475-93. Abstract

18. Duong TA, Valeyrie-Allanore L, Wolkenstein P, et al. Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to drugs. Lancet. 2017 Oct 28;390(10106):1996-2011. Abstract

19. Kardaun SH, Sekula P, Valeyrie-Allanore L, et al. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS): an original multisystem adverse drug reaction – results from the prospective RegiSCAR study. Br J Dermatol. 2013 Nov;169(5):1071-80.Full text  Abstract

20. Cacoub P, Musette P, Descamps V, et al. The DRESS syndrome: a literature review. Am J Med. 2011 Jul;124(7):588-97. Abstract

21. Drago F, Ciccarese G, Gasparini G, et al. Contemporary infectious exanthems: an update. Future Microbiol. 2017 Feb;12:171-93.Full text  Abstract

22. Cherry JD. Viral exanthems. Curr Probl Pediatr. 1983 Apr;13(6):1-44. Abstract

23. Renn CN, Straff W, Dorfmuller A, et al. Amoxicillin-induced exanthema in young adults with infectious mononucleosis: demonstration of drug-specific lymphocyte reactivity. Br J Dermatol. 2002 Dec;147(6):1166-70. Abstract

24. Mancini AJ, Shani-Adir A. Other viral diseases. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Elsevier; 2003:1255-320.

25. Celebi G, Pişkin N, Aydemir H, et al. Evaluation of 35 adult measles cases detected in a measles outbreak [in Turkish]. Mikrobiyol Bul. 2007 Jan;41(1):79-86. Abstract

26. Public Health England. National measles guidelines. November 2019 [internet publication].Full text

27. Cherry JD. Parvovirus infections in children and adults. Adv Pediatr. 1999;46:245-69. Abstract

28. Kimberlin DW. Human herpesviruses 6 and 7: identification of newly recognized viral pathogens and their association with human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1998 Jan;17(1):59-67; quiz 68. Abstract

29. Porras B, Costner M, Friedman-Kien AE, et al. Update on cutaneous manifestations of HIV infection. Med Clin North Am. 1998 Sep;82(5):1033-80, v. Abstract

30. Dobson JS, Levell NJ. Spotting Zika spots: descriptive features of the rash used in 66 published cases. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2019 Jan;44(1):4-12.Full text  Abstract

31. de Araújo TVB, Rodrigues LC, de Alencar Ximenes RA, et al. Association between Zika virus infection and microcephaly in Brazil, January to May, 2016: preliminary report of a case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Sep 16;16(12):1356-63.Full text  Abstract

32. Kortepeter MG, Bausch DG, Bray M. Basic clinical and laboratory features of filoviral hemorrhagic fever. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(suppl 3):S810-16.Full text  Abstract

33. Dallatomasinas S, Crestani R, Squire JS, et al. Ebola outbreak in rural West Africa: epidemiology, clinical features and outcomes. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Apr;20(4):448-54. Abstract

34. WHO Ebola Response Team. Ebola virus disease in West Africa: the first 9 months of the epidemic and forward projections. N Engl J Med. 2014 Oct 16;371(16):1481-95.Full text  Abstract

35. Lado M, Walker N, Baker P, et al. Clinical features of patients isolated for suspected Ebola virus disease at Connaught Hospital, Freetown, Sierra Leone: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Sep;15(9):1024-33. Abstract

36. Gemmell CG. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome. J Med Microbiol. 1995 Nov;43(5):318-27. Abstract

37. Cribier B, Piemont Y, Grosshans E. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in adults. A clinical review illustrated with a new case. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994 Feb;30(2 Pt 2):319-24. Abstract

38. Hajjeh RA, Reingold A, Weil A, et al. Toxic shock syndrome in the United States: surveillance update, 1979-1996. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):807-10.Full text  Abstract

39. Reingold AL, Hargrett NT, Shands KN, et al. Toxic shock syndrome surveillance in the United States, 1980 to 1981. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Jun;96(6 Pt 2):875-80. Abstract

40. Lamagni T, Guy R, Chand M, et al. Resurgence of scarlet fever in England, 2014-16: a population-based surveillance study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018 Feb;18(2):180-7. Abstract

41. Lerch M, Mainetti C, Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli B, et al. Current perspectives on erythema multiforme. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2018 Feb;54(1):177-84. Abstract

42. Buckingham SC, Marshall GS, Schutze GE, et al. Clinical and laboratory features, hospital course, and outcome of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children. J Pediatr. 2007 Feb;150(2):180-4. Abstract

43. Zeiser R, Blazar BR. Acute graft-versus-host disease: biologic process, prevention, and therapy. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 30;377(22):2167-79.Full text  Abstract

44. McCrindle BW, Rowley AH, Newburger JW, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017 Apr 25;135(17):e927-99.Full text  Abstract

45. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fever in under 5s: assessment and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

46. Mehrpoor G, Owlia MB, Soleimani H, et al. Adult-onset Still's disease: a report of 28 cases and review of the literature. Mod Rheumatol. 2008;18(5):480-5. Abstract

47. Falcini F, Cimaz R. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2000 Sep;12(5):415-9. Abstract

48. Vanden Hoek TL, Morrison LJ, Shuster M, et al. Part 12: cardiac arrest in special situations: 2010 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Circulation. 2010 Nov 2;122(18 suppl 3):S829-61.Full text  Abstract

49. Singer M, Deutschman CS, Seymour CW, et al. The third international consensus definitions for sepsis and septic shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23;315(8):801-10.Full text  Abstract

50. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Sepsis: recognition, diagnosis and early management. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

51. Royal College of Physicians. National early warning score (NEWS) 2: standardising the assessment of acute-illness severity in the NHS. December 2017 [internet publication].Full text

52. American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) Expert Panel on Sepsis. DART: an evidence-driven tool to guide the early recognition and treatment of sepsis and septic shock. 2016 [internet publication].Full text

53. Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving sepsis campaign: international guidelines for management of sepsis and septic shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-143.Full text  Abstract

54. Surviving Sepsis Campaign. Hour-1 bundle: initial resuscitation for sepsis and septic shock. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

55. Gottlieb M, Long B, Koyfman A. The evaluation and management of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in the emergency department: a review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2018 Jul;55(1):42-50. Abstract

56. Nkoghe D, Leroy EM, Toung-Mve M, et al. Cutaneous manifestations of filovirus infections. Int J Dermatol. 2012 Sep;51(9):1037-43. Abstract

57. World Health Organization. Dengue: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control. 2009 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

58. World Health Organization. Comprehensive guidelines for prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever. 2011 [internet publication].Full text

59. World Health Organization. Handbook for clinical management of dengue. 2012 [internet publication].Full text

60. Ely JW, Seabury Stone M. The generalized rash: part II. Diagnostic approach. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Mar 15;81(6):735-9.Full text  Abstract

61. Belum VR, Benhuri B, Postow MA, et al. Characterisation and management of dermatologic adverse events to agents targeting the PD-1 receptor. Eur J Cancer. 2016 Jun;60:12-25.Full text  Abstract

62. Berbis, P. Rickettsial diseases. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Elsevier; 2003:1165-70.

63. O'Byrne P, MacPherson P. Syphilis. BMJ. 2019 Jun 28;365:l4159.Full text  Abstract

64. Stary A. Sexually transmitted diseases. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Elsevier; 2003:1271-81.

65. Blume JE, Levine EG, Heymann WR. Bacterial diseases. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Rapini RP, eds. Dermatology. Elsevier; 2003:1117-44.

66. Evans AS, Niederman JC, Cenabre LC, et al. A prospective evaluation of heterophile and Epstein-Barr virus-specific IgM antibody tests in clinical and subclinical infectious mononucleosis: Specificity and sensitivity of the tests and persistence of antibody. J Infect Dis. 1999 Nov-Dec;5(6):807-10. Abstract

67. Ferry T, Thomas D, Bouchut JC, et al. Early diagnosis of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome by detection of the TSST-1 Vbeta signature in peripheral blood of a 12-year-old boy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Mar;27(3):274-7. Abstract

68. Mirakian R, Ewan PW, Durham SR, et al. BSACI guidelines for the management of drug allergy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009 Jan;39(1):43-61.Full text  Abstract

69. Nigen S, Knowles SR, Shear NH. Drug eruptions: approaching the diagnosis of drug-induced skin diseases. J Drugs Dermatol. 2003 Jun;2(3):278-99. Abstract

70. Hassoun-Kheir N, Bergman R1, Weltfriend S. The use of patch tests in the diagnosis of delayed hypersensitivity drug eruptions. Int J Dermatol. 2016 Nov;55(11):1219-24. Abstract

71. Aberer W, Bircher A, Romano A, et al. Drug provocation testing in the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions: general consideration. Allergy. 2003 Sep;58(9):854-63. Abstract

72. Lammintausta K, Kortekangas-Savolainen O. The usefulness of skin tests to prove drug hypersensitivity. Br J Dermatol. 2005 May;152(5):968-74. Abstract

73. Elzagallaai AA, Knowles SR, Rieder MJ, et al. Patch testing for the diagnosis of anticonvulsant hypersensitivity syndrome: a systematic review. Drug Saf. 2009;32(5):391-408. Abstract

74. Cham PM, Warshaw EM. Patch testing for evaluating drug reactions due to systemic antibiotics. Dermatitis. 2007 Jun;18(2):63-77. Abstract

75. Lammintausta K, Kortekangas-Savolainen O. Oral challenge in patients with suspected cutaneous adverse drug reactions: findings in 784 patients during a 25-year-period. Acta Derm Venereol. 2005;85(6):491-6. Abstract

76. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Collecting and shipping specimens for suspected measles cases. November 2020 [internet publication].Full text

77. Biggs HM, Behravesh CB, Bradley KK, et al. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever and other spotted fever group rickettsioses, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis: United States. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2016 May 13;65(2):1-44.Full text  Abstract

78. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Chikungunya virus: diagnostic testing. December 2018 [internet publication].Full text

79. Sharp TM, Fischer M, Muñoz-Jordán JL, et al. Dengue and Zika virus diagnostic testing for patients with a clinically compatible illness and risk for infection with both viruses. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2019 Jun 14;68(1):1-10.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer