Last reviewed: 30 Oct 2021
Last updated: 23 Mar 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Functional dyspepsia
  • Helicobacter pylori infection
  • GORD and oesophagitis
  • Peptic ulcer disease
  • Gastroparesis
  • Gastritis and duodenitis with and without erosions
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Cholelithiasis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Drug-induced dyspepsia
  • Coeliac disease

Uncommon

  • Upper gastrointestinal malignancy
  • Intestinal parasites: Giardia, Cryptosporidium
  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • Acute or chronic pancreatitis
  • Pancreatic tumours/cancers
  • Obstruction of the hepatobiliary tract from stone, stricture, or tumour
  • Hypercalcaemia
  • Abdominal wall pain

Contributors

Authors

Nimish Vakil, MD, FACP, AGAF, FASGE, FACG

Clinical Adjunct Professor

School of Medicine and Public Health

University of Wisconsin

Madison

WI

Disclosures

NV has consulted for Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Shire Pharmaceuticals, and Astellas Pharma. He has received research grants from Impleo Medical and Allergan. NV is an author of several references cited in this topic.

Acknowledgements

Dr Nimish Vakil would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Nigel W. Flook, a previous contributor to this topic.

Disclosures

NWF declares that he has no conflicting interests.

Peer reviewers

Lars Aabakken, MD

Professor of Medicine

Chief of GI Endoscopy

Rikshospitalet University Hospital

Oslo

Norway

Disclosures

LA declares that he has no competing interests.

Marc Bradette, MD, FRCP(C)

Gastroenterologist

Chief of Service

Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu de Québec

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec

Québec City

Québec

Canada

Disclosures

MB declares that he has no competing interests.

Paul Moayyedi, BSc, MB ChB, PhD, MPH, FRCP (London), FRCPC, FACG, AGAF

Director

Division of Gastroenterology

Professor

Department of Medicine

McMaster University Medical Centre

Hamilton

Ontario

Canada

Disclosures

PM is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.

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