Epidemiology

The reported prevalence of congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) has ranged from 0.3% to 20%.[2][8] A male to female predominance of 3:2 has been reported.[8] Studies have shown no statistically significant difference in the side involved. Associated plagiocephaly of varying degrees has been found in up to 90% of children with CMT.[2][8][9] Incidence of plagiocephaly in the general population has been estimated from 1 in 300 live births to as high as 48% of healthy infants. Many authors have reported an increase in plagiocephaly and acquired torticollis correlating with recommendations that infants be placed supine to sleep.[10][11][12][13] One centre described a 6-fold increase in positional plagiocephaly between 1992 and 1994.[11]

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