Lead toxicity

References

Key articles

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blood lead levels: United States, 1988-1991. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43:545-548.Full text  Abstract

Harvey B, ed. Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2002.Full text

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adult blood lead epidemiology and surveillance - United States, 2008-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jul 1;60(25):841-5.Full text  Abstract

Mahaffey KR. Nutrition and lead: strategies for public health. Environ Health Perspect. 1995;103(suppl 6):191S-196S.Full text  Abstract

Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, et al. Household interventions for secondary prevention of domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 6;10:CD006047.Full text  Abstract

Yeoh B, Woolfenden S, Lanphear B, et al. Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD006047.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blood lead levels in children. Childhood lead poisoning prevention program. February 2022 [internet publication].Full text

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Understanding blood lead levels. Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) workplace safety & health topics. February 2021 [Internet publication].Full text

3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lead, elevated blood levels 2016 case definition. April 2021 [internet publication].Full text

4. Rabinowitz M. Historical perspective on lead biokinetic models. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106(suppl 6):1461S-1465S.Full text  Abstract

5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Blood lead levels: United States, 1988-1991. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994;43:545-548.Full text  Abstract

6. Harvey B, ed. Managing elevated blood lead levels among young children: recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2002.Full text

7. Ettinger AS, Leonard ML, Mason J. CDC's lead poisoning prevention program: a long-standing responsibility and commitment to protect children from lead exposure. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2019 Jan-Feb;25(suppl 1):S5-S12. Abstract

8. UK Health Security Agency. Lead Exposure in Children Surveillance System (LEICSS) annual report 2021. Health Protection Report. 2021 Oct 26;15(17) [internet publication].Full text

9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adult blood lead epidemiology and surveillance - United States, 2008-2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011 Jul 1;60(25):841-5.Full text  Abstract

10. Breeher L, Mikulski MA, Czeczok T, et al. A cluster of lead poisoning among consumers of Ayurvedic medicine. Int J Occup Environ Health. 2015;21(4):303-7. Abstract

11. Breyre A, Green-McKenzie J. Case of acute lead toxicity associated with Ayurvedic supplements. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Jun 30;2016:bcr2016215041. Abstract

12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Jobs that may have lead exposure. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) workplace safety & health topics. December 2021 [internet publication].Full text

13. Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics. Medical management guidelines for lead-exposed adults. October 2013 [internet publication].Full text

14. Tripathi RK, Sherertz PC, Llewellyn GC, et al. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors. Am J Public Health. 1991;81:753-755.Full text  Abstract

15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Lead poisoning associated with use of traditional ethnic remedies - California, 1991-1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1993 Jul 16;42(27):521-4. Abstract

16. Leads from the MMWR. Folk remedy-associated lead poisoning in Hmong children. JAMA. 1983 Dec 16;250(23):3149-50. Abstract

17. Santucci RJ Jr, Scully JR. The pervasive threat of lead (Pb) in drinking water: unmasking and pursuing scientific factors that govern lead release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Sep 22;117(38):23211-8.Full text  Abstract

18. Levin R, Brown MJ, Kashtock ME, et al. Lead exposures in U.S. children, 2008: implications for prevention. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:1285-93.Full text  Abstract

19. Maas RP, Patch SC, Morgan DM, et al. Reducing lead exposure from drinking water: recent history and current status. Public Health Rep. 2005;120:316-21.Full text  Abstract

20. Brown MJ, Margolis S. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States. MMWR Surveill Summ. 2012;61(suppl):1-9.Full text  Abstract

21. Gulson BL, Jameson CW, Mahaffey KR, et al. Pregnancy increases mobilization of lead from maternal skeleton. J Lab Clin Med. 1997 Jul;130(1):51-62. Abstract

22. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Environmental and health medicine education: lead toxicity. What is the biological fate of lead in the body? June 2021 [internet publication].Full text

23. Mahaffey KR. Nutrition and lead: strategies for public health. Environ Health Perspect. 1995;103(suppl 6):191S-196S.Full text  Abstract

24. Rabinowitz MB, Wetherill GW, Kopple JD. Kinetic analysis of lead metabolism in healthy humans. J Clin Invest. 1976;58:260-270.Full text  Abstract

25. Nolan CV, Shaikh ZA. Lead nephrotoxicity and associated disorders: biochemical mechanisms. Toxicology. 1992;73:127-146. Abstract

26. Navas-Acien A, Guallar E, Silbergeld EK, et al. Lead exposure and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:472-482.Full text  Abstract

27. Lanphear BP, Hornung R, Khoury J, et al. Low-level environmental lead exposure and children's intellectual function: an international pooled analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2005;113:894-899.Full text  Abstract

28. Jusko TA, Henderson CR, Lanphear BP, et al. Blood lead concentrations < 10 microg/dL and child intelligence at 6 years of age. Environ Health Perspect. 2008;116:243-248.Full text  Abstract

29. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Preventing lead poisoning in young children. Atlanta, GA: CDC; 2005.Full text

30. Canfield RL, Henderson CR Jr, Cory-Slechta DA, et al. Intellectual impairment in children with blood lead concentrations below 10 microg per deciliter. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:1517-1526.Full text  Abstract

31. Neal AP, Stansfield KH, Worley PF, et al. Lead exposure during synaptogenesis alters vesicular proteins and impairs vesicular release: potential role of NMDA receptor-dependent BDNF signaling. Toxicol Sci. 2010 Jul;116(1):249-63.Full text  Abstract

32. Hu F, Xu L, Liu ZH, et al. Developmental lead exposure alters synaptogenesis through inhibiting canonical Wnt pathway in vivo and in vitro. PLoS One. 2014;9(7):e101894.Full text  Abstract

33. Goyer RA. Nutrition and metal toxicity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(3 suppl):646S-650S. Abstract

34. Marchetti C. Molecular targets of lead in brain neurotoxicity. Neurotox Res. 2003;5:221-236. Abstract

35. Cremin JD Jr, Smith DR. In vitro vs in vivo Pb effects on brain protein kinase C activity. Environ Res. 2002;90:191-199. Abstract

36. Fujita H, Nishitani C, Ogawa K. Lead, chemical porphyria, and heme as a biological mediator. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2002;196:53-64.Full text  Abstract

37. Senut MC, Cingolani P, Sen A, et al. Epigenetics of early-life lead exposure and effects on brain development. Epigenomics. 2012;4:665-674.Full text  Abstract

38. Nye MD, Fry RC, Hoyo C, et al. Investigating epigenetic effects of prenatal exposure to toxic metals in newborns: challenges and benefits. Med Epigenet. 2014;2(1):53-9.Full text  Abstract

39. Thihalolipavan S, Candalla BM, Ehrlich J. Examining pica in NYC pregnant women with elevated blood lead levels. Matern Child Health J. 2013 Jan;17(1):49-55.Full text  Abstract

40. Martin G, Gupta V, Bhurawala H. A case of pica and elevated lead levels in a child. Aust J Gen Pract. 2021 Jan-Feb;50(1-2):60-61.Full text  Abstract

41. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Lead poisoning prevention. Childhood lead poisoning prevention program. January 2022 [internet publication].Full text

42. Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, et al. Household interventions for secondary prevention of domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 6;10:CD006047.Full text  Abstract

43. Allaouat S, Reddy VK, Räsänen K, et al. Educational interventions for preventing lead poisoning in workers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 28;(2):CD013097.Full text

44. US Department for Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2030. Reduce exposure to lead - EH‑08 [internet publication].Full text

45. US Department of Healthand Human Sciences. Healthy People 2030. Reduce blood lead levels in children aged 1 to 5 years - EH‑04 [internet publication].Full text

46. Medicaid.gov. Lead screening [internet publication].Full text

47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Blood lead reference value. October 2021 [internet publication].Full text

48. Council on Environmental Health. Prevention of childhood lead toxicity. Pediatrics. 2016 Jul;138(1):e20161493.Full text  Abstract

49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) workplace safety & health topics. February 2021 [Internet publication].Full text

50. Dolcourt JL, Hamrick HJ, O'Tuama LA, et al. Increased lead burden in children of battery workers: asymptomatic exposure resulting from contaminated work clothing. Pediatrics. 1978;62:563-566. Abstract

51. Reuben A, Schaefer JD, Moffitt TE, et al. Association of childhood lead exposure with adult personality traits and lifelong mental health. JAMA Psychiatry. 2019 Apr 1;76(4):418-25.Full text  Abstract

52. Reuben A, Caspi A, Belsky DW, et al. Association of childhood blood lead levels with cognitive function and socioeconomic status at age 38 years and with IQ change and socioeconomic mobility between childhood and adulthood. JAMA. 2017 Mar 28;317(12):1244-51.Full text  Abstract

53. Schwaba T, Bleidorn W, Hopwood CJ, et al. The impact of childhood lead exposure on adult personality: Evidence from the United States, Europe, and a large-scale natural experiment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 Jul 20;118(29):e2020104118.Full text  Abstract

54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention. Interpreting and managing blood lead levels < 10 microg/dL in children and reducing childhood exposures to lead. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2007;56:1-16.Full text  Abstract

55. Gandhi D, Shanbag P, Vaidya M. Lead lines. Lancet. 2003 Jul 19;362(9379):197.Full text  Abstract

56. Hu H, Rabinowitz M, Smith D. Bone lead as a biological marker in epidemiologic studies of chronic toxicity: conceptual paradigms. Environ Health Perspect. 1998;106:1-8.Full text  Abstract

57. Barry V, Todd AC, Steenland K. Bone lead associations with blood lead, kidney function and blood pressure among US, lead-exposed workers in a surveillance programme. Occup Environ Med. 2019 May;76(5):349-4. Abstract

58. Schwartz BS, Caffo B, Stewart WF, et al. Evaluation of cumulative lead dose and longitudinal changes in structural magnetic resonance imaging in former organolead workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2010;52:407-414.Full text  Abstract

59. Brubaker CJ, Dietrich KN, Lanphear BP, et al. The influence of age of lead exposure on adult gray matter volume. Neurotoxicology. 2010;31:259-266.Full text  Abstract

60. Brubaker CJ, Schmithorst VJ, Haynes EN, et al. Altered myelination and axonal integrity in adults with childhood lead exposure: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neurotoxicology. 2009;30:867-875.Full text  Abstract

61. Cecil KM, Brubaker CJ, Adler CM, et al. Decreased brain volume in adults with childhood lead exposure. PLoS Med. 2008 May 27;5(5):e112.Full text  Abstract

62. Gorospe EC, Gerstenberger SL. Atypical sources of childhood lead poisoning in the United States: a systematic review from 1966-2006. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2008;46:728-737. Abstract

63. Abelsohn AR, Sanborn M. Lead and children: clinical management for family physicians. Can Fam Physician. 2010;56:531-535.Full text  Abstract

64. Rischitelli G, Nygren P, Bougatsos C, et al. Screening for elevated lead levels in childhood and pregnancy: an updated summary of evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force. Pediatrics. 2006;118:e1867-e1895. Abstract

65. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Screening for lead during the domestic medical examination for newly arrived refugees. February 2022 [internet publication].Full text

66. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Medical management guidelines for lead. October 2014 [internet publication].Full text

67. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental Health. Lead exposure in children: prevention, detection, and management. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1036-1046.Full text  Abstract

68. Yeoh B, Woolfenden S, Lanphear B, et al. Household interventions for preventing domestic lead exposure in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(12):CD006047.Full text  Abstract

69. Buka I, Hervouet-Zeiber C. Lead toxicity with a new focus: addressing low-level lead exposure in Canadian children. Paediatr Child Health. 2019 Jul;24(4):293-4.Full text  Abstract

70. World Health Organization. Guideline for clinical management of exposure to lead. 2021 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

71. Pediatric Environmental Health Specialty Units (PEHSU). Management of childhood lead exposure: a resource for health professionals. September 2021 [internet publication].Full text

72. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Recommended actions based on blood lead level. Childhood lead poisoning prevention program. October 2021 [internet publication].Full text

73. Treatment guidelines for lead exposure in children. American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Pediatrics. 1995;96:155-160. Abstract

74. Dietrich KN, Ware JH, Salganik M, et al; Treatment of Lead-Exposed Children Clinical Trial Group. Effect of chelation therapy on the neuropsychological and behavioral development of lead-exposed children after school entry. Pediatrics. 2004;114:19-26. Abstract

75. Chen A, Rhoads GG, Cai B, et al. The effect of chelation on blood pressure in lead-exposed children: a randomized study. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:579-583.Full text  Abstract

76. Chisolm JJ Jr, Harrison HE. The treatment of acute lead encephalopathy in children. Pediatrics. 1957;19:2-20. Abstract

77. Ettinger AS, Hu H, Hernandez-Avila M. Dietary calcium supplementation to lower blood lead levels in pregnancy and lactation. J Nutr Biochem. 2007 Mar;18(3):172-8.Full text  Abstract

78. Bellinger DC. The protean toxicities of lead: new chapters in a familiar story. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011 Jul;8(7):2593-628.Full text  Abstract

79. Gorini F, Muratori F, Morales MA. The role of heavy metal pollution in neurobehavioral disorders: a focus on autism. Rev J Autism Dev Disord. 2014;1(4):354-72.Full text

80. Saghazadeh A, Rezaei N. Systematic review and meta-analysis links autism and toxic metals and highlights the impact of country development status: higher blood and erythrocyte levels for mercury and lead, and higher hair antimony, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Jul 14;79(Pt B):340-68. Abstract

81. American Cancer Society. Known and probable human carcinogens. August 2019 [internet publication].Full text

82. Choi YH, Hu H, Mukherjee B, et al. Environmental cadmium and lead exposures and hearing loss in US adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999 to 2004. Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1544-1550.Full text  Abstract

83. Shargorodsky J, Curhan SG, Henderson E, et al. Heavy metals exposure and hearing loss in US adolescents. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011;137:1183-1189.Full text  Abstract

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