Bacterial vaginosis continues to be a leading cause of vaginitis; other common infectious causes include trichomoniasis and candidiasis, although non-infectious causes are also possible.
Affects all age groups of women, particularly during their reproductive years.
Common symptoms include discharge, pruritus, and dyspareunia.
It is recommended to screen for sexually transmitted infections (STIs; also known as sexually transmitted diseases [STDs]) in all patients with infective vaginitis.
Sexual partners of patients with Trichomonas vaginalis should be treated and offered screening for other STIs.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina due to changes in the composition of the vaginal micro-environment from infection, irritants, or from hormonal deficiency (e.g., atrophic vaginitis). Bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and candidiasis are types of infections that cause vaginitis.
History and exam
- poor or excessive hygiene
- antibiotic use
- change in feminine hygiene products and/or soap
- HIV infection
- black women
- intrauterine device
- oral contraceptive pill use
- latex condom/diaphragm
- reproductive age
- multiple or new sex partners
- increased frequency of intercourse
- vaginal pH
- amine 'whiff' test of vaginal secretions
- wet mount microscopy of vaginal secretions
- Gram stain of vaginal secretions
- HIV test
- nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT)
- venereal disease research laboratory (VDLR) test
- serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery
Chairman of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Reliant Medical Group
Assistant Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology
University of Massachusetts Medical School
DSI declares that he has no competing interests.
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Virginia Commonwealth University
DC declares that he has no competing interests.
Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Surgery
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
JS declares that he has no competing interests.
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