Erb's palsy

References

Key articles

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Shoulder dystocia: green-top guideline no 42. March 2012 [internet publication].Full text

Smith BW, Daunter AK, Yang LJ, et al. An update on the management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy-replacing old paradigms: a review. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jun 1;172(6):585-91. Abstract

Shenaq SM, Bullocks JM, Dhillon G, et al. Management of infant brachial plexus injuries. Clin Plast Surg. 2005 Jan;32(1):79-98, ix. Abstract

Waters PM. Update on management of pediatric brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2005 Jul;14(4):233-44. Abstract

Vuillermin C, Bauer AS. Boston Children's Hospital approach to brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016 Jul;25(4):296-304. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Erb W. Uber eine eigentumliche lokalisation von lahmungen im plexusbrachialis. Naturhist Med Vehr Heidelberg Vehr. 1874;2:130-136.

2. Klumpke A. Paralysies radiculaires du plexus brachial, paralysies radiculaires totales, paralysies radiculaires inferieures. De la participation des filets sympathiques oculo-pupillaires dans ces paralysies. Rev Med Paris. 1885;5:591-616.

3. Terzis JK, Liberson WT, Levine R. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy. Hand Clin. 1986;2:773-786. Abstract

4. Narakas AO. Injuries to the brachial plexus. In: Bora FW, ed. The pediatric upper extremity: diagnosis and management. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1986:247-258.

5. Desurkar A1, Mills K, Pitt M, et al. Congenital lower brachial plexus palsy due to cervical ribs. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2011 Feb;53(2):188-90.Full text  Abstract

6. Tzou CH, Paternostro-Sluga T, Frey M, et al. Birth brachial plexus palsy caused by cervical rib. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2014 Jul;67(7):1004-5. Abstract

7. Van der Looven R, Le Roy L, Tanghe E, et al. Risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2020 Jun;62(6):673-83.Full text  Abstract

8. DeFrancesco CJ, Shah DK, Rogers BH, et al. The epidemiology of brachial plexus birth palsy in the United States: declining incidence and evolving risk factors. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Feb;39(2):e134-e140. Abstract

9. Abzug JM, Mehlman CT, Ying J. Assessment of current epidemiology and risk factors surrounding brachial plexus birth palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 2019 Jun;44(6):515.e1-515.e10. Abstract

10. Chen HY, Blackwell SC, Yang LJ, et al. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy: associated birth injury outcomes, hospital length of stay and costs. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021 Feb 25;:1-9. Abstract

11. Smith NC, Rowan P, Benson LJ, et al. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy: outcome of absent biceps function at three months of age. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Oct;86-A(10):2163-70. Abstract

12. al-Qattan MM, Clarke HM, Curtis CG. Klumpke's birth palsy: does it really exist? J Hand Surg Br. 1995 Feb;20(1):19-23. Abstract

13. O'Berry P, Brown M, Phillips L, et al. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2017 Jul;47(7):151-5. Abstract

14. Abid A. Brachial plexus birth palsy: Management during the first year of life. Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2016 Feb;102(1 suppl):S125-32.Full text  Abstract

15. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Shoulder dystocia: green-top guideline no 42. March 2012 [internet publication].Full text

16. Vakhshori V, Bouz GJ, Alluri RK, et al. Risk factors associated with neonatal brachial plexus palsy in the United States. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2020 Jul;29(4):392-8. Abstract

17. Finnegan CL, Burke N, Breathnach F, et al. Defining the upper limit of the second stage of labor in nulliparous patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2019 Aug;1(3):100029. Abstract

18. Papaccio M, Fichera A, Nava A, et al. Obstetric consequences of a false-positive diagnosis of large-for-gestational-age fetus. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2021 Nov 26 [Online ahead of print].Full text  Abstract

19. Smith BW, Daunter AK, Yang LJ, et al. An update on the management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy-replacing old paradigms: a review. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Jun 1;172(6):585-91. Abstract

20. Mollberg M, Hagberg H, Bager B, et al. High birthweight and shoulder dystocia: the strongest risk factors for obstetrical brachial plexus palsy in a Swedish population-based study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Jul;84(7):654-9. Abstract

21. Ashwal E, Berezowsky A, Orbach-Zinger S, et al. Birthweight thresholds for increased risk for maternal and neonatal morbidity following vaginal delivery: a retrospective study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2018 Dec;298(6):1123-9. Abstract

22. Dodd M, Lindqvist PG. Antenatal awareness and obstetric outcomes in large fetuses: a retrospective evaluation. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2021 Jan;256:314-9.Full text  Abstract

23. Davis DD, Roshan A, Canela CD, et al. Shoulder dystocia. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Feb 12.Full text  Abstract

24. Allen RH. On the mechanical aspects of shoulder dystocia and birth injury. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Sep;50(3):607-23. Abstract

25. Mehta SH, Blackwell SC, Chadha R, et al. Shoulder dystocia and the next delivery: outcomes and management. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Oct;20(10):729-33. Abstract

26. Torki M, Barton L, Miller DA,et al. Severe brachial plexus palsy in women without shoulder dystocia. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Sep;120(3):539-41. Abstract

27. Gao SC, Chen L, Meng W, et al. A case-control study on the risk factors related to obstetric brachial plexus palsy [in Chinese]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2005 Sep;26(9):676-9. Abstract

28. Gosk J, Rutowski R. Analysis of risk factors for perinatal brachial plexus palsy [in Polish]. Ginekol Pol. 2005 Apr;76(4):270-6. Abstract

29. Bar J, Dvir A, Hod M, et al. Brachial plexus injury and obstetrical risk factors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001 Apr;73(1):21-5. Abstract

30. Melendez J, Bhatia R, Callis L, et al. Severe shoulder dystocia leading to neonatal injury: a case control study. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2009 Jan;279(1):47-51. Abstract

31. Satpathy HK, Fleming A, Frey D, et al. Maternal obesity and pregnancy. Postgrad Med. 2008 Sep 15;120(3):E01-9. Abstract

32. Berle P, Misselwitz B, Scharlau J. Maternal risks for newborn macrosomia, incidence of a shoulder dystocia and of damages of the plexus brachialis [in German]. Z Geburtshilfe Neonatol. 2003 Jul-Aug;207(4):148-52. Abstract

33. Al-Qattan MM. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy associated with breech delivery. Ann Plast Surg. 2003 Sep;51(3):257-64. Abstract

34. Geutjens G, Gilbert A, Helsen K. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy associated with breech delivery: a different pattern of injury. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996 Mar;78(2):303-6. Abstract

35. Mattuizzi A. Breech presentation: CNGOF guidelines for clinical practice - epidemiology, risk factors and complications [in French]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil Senol. 2020 Jan;48(1):70-80.Full text  Abstract

36. Hudic I, Fatusic Z, Sinanovic O, et al. Intrapartum risk factors for brachial plexus palsy [in Bosnian]. Med Arh. 2007;61(1):43-6. Abstract

37. Weizsaecker K, Deaver JE, Cohen WR. Labour characteristics and neonatal Erb's palsy. BJOG. 2007 Aug;114(8):1003-9.Full text  Abstract

38. Backe B, Magnussen EB, Johansen OJ, et al. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a birth injury not explained by the known risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(10):1027-32. Abstract

39. El-Sayed AA. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy following routine versus difficult deliveries. J Child Neurol. 2014 Jul;29(7):920-3. Abstract

40. Chauhan SP, Christian B, Gherman RB, et al. Shoulder dystocia without versus with brachial plexus injury: a case-control study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Apr;20(4):313-7. Abstract

41. Ouzounian JG, Gherman RB. Shoulder dystocia: are historic risk factors reliable predictors? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jun;192(6):1933-5. Abstract

42. Doumouchtsis SK, Arulkumaran S. Is it possible to reduce obstetrical brachial plexus palsy by optimal management of shoulder dystocia? Ann NY Acad Sci. 2010 Sep;1205:135-43. Abstract

43. Dunbar DC, Vilensky JA, Suárez-Quian CA, et al. Risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus palsy attributed to anatomy, physiology, and evolution. Clin Anat. 2021 Sep;34(6):884-98. Abstract

44. Lindqvist PG, Ajne G, Cooray C, et al. Identification of pregnancies at increased risk of brachial plexus birth palsy - the construction of a weighted risk score. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2014 Feb;27(3):252-6 Abstract

45. Deaver JE, Cohen WR. An approach to the prediction of neonatal Erb palsy. J Perinat Med. 2009;37(2):150-5. Abstract

46. Dyachenko A, Ciampi A, Fahey J, et al. Prediction of risk for shoulder dystocia with neonatal injury. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;195(6):1544-9. Abstract

47. Foad SL, Mehlman CT, Ying J. The epidemiology of neonatal brachial plexus palsy in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Jun;90(6):1258-64. Abstract

48. MacKenzie IZ, Shah M, Lean K, et al. Management of shoulder dystocia: trends in incidence and maternal and neonatal morbidity. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Nov;110(5):1059-68. Abstract

49. Ouzounian JG, Korst LM, Miller DA, et al. Brachial plexus palsy and shoulder dystocia: obstetric risk factors remain elusive. Am J Perinatol. 2013 Apr;30(4):303-7. Abstract

50. Okby R, Sheiner E. Risk factors for neonatal brachial plexus paralysis. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012 Aug;286(2):333-6. Abstract

51. Parantainen J, Palomäki O, Talola N, et al. Clinical and sonographic risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia - a case-control study with parity and gestational age matched controls. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2014 Jun;177:110-4. Abstract

52. Grobman WA1, Miller D, Burke C, et al. Outcomes associated with introduction of a shoulder dystocia protocol. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Dec;205(6):513-7.Full text  Abstract

53. Johnson GJ, Denning S, Clark SL, et al. Pathophysiologic origins of brachial plexus injury. Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Oct;136(4):725-30. Abstract

54. Wagner SM, Bell CS, Gupta M, et al. Interventions to decrease complications after shoulder dystocia: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Nov;225(5):484.e1-484.e33.Full text  Abstract

55. Zaami S, Busardò FP, Signore F, et al. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy: a population-based retrospective case-control study and medicolegal considerations. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017 May 14:1-6. Abstract

56. Hankins GD, Clark SM, Munn MB. Cesarean section on request at 39 weeks: impact on shoulder dystocia, fetal trauma, neonatal encephalopathy, and intrauterine fetal demise. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Oct;30(5):276-87. Abstract

57. Alexander JM, Leveno KJ, Hauth J, et al. Fetal injury associated with cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;108(4):885-90. Abstract

58. Iffy L, Pantages P. Erb's palsy after delivery by Cesarean section: a medico-legal key to a vexing problem. Med Law. 2005 Dec;24(4):655-61. Abstract

59. Rouse DJ, Owen J, Goldenberg RL, et al. The effectiveness and costs of elective cesarean delivery for fetal macrosomia diagnosed by ultrasound. JAMA. 1996 Nov 13;276(18):1480-6. Abstract

60. Magro-Malosso ER, Saccone G, Chen M, et al. Induction of labour for suspected macrosomia at term in non-diabetic women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. BJOG. 2017 Feb;124(3):414-21.Full text  Abstract

61. Shenaq SM, Bullocks JM, Dhillon G, et al. Management of infant brachial plexus injuries. Clin Plast Surg. 2005 Jan;32(1):79-98, ix. Abstract

62. Waters PM. Update on management of pediatric brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2005 Jul;14(4):233-44. Abstract

63. Clarke HM, Curtis CG. An approach to obstetrical brachial plexus injuries. Hand Clin. 1995 Nov;11(4):563-80. Abstract

64. Zafeiriou DI, Psychogiou K. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2008 Apr;38(4):235-42. Abstract

65. Yoshida K, Kawabata H. The prognostic value of concurrent Horner syndrome in surgical decision making at 3 months in total-type neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2018 Jul;43(6):609-12. Abstract

66. Bowerson M, Nelson VS, Yang LJ. Diaphragmatic paralysis associated with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Neurol. 2010 Mar;42(3):234-6. Abstract

67. Rizeq YK, Many BT, Vacek JC, et al. Diaphragmatic paralysis after phrenic nerve injury in newborns. J Pediatr Surg. 2020 Feb;55(2):240-244. Abstract

68. Casellas-García G, Cavanilles-Walker JM, Albertí-Fitó G. Clavicular fracture in the newborn: Is fracture location a risk factor for obstetric brachial palsy? J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2018;11(1):61-4. Abstract

69. Asena M, Akelma H, Ziyadanoğulları MO. The relationship between the location of neonatal clavicular fractures and predisposing factors. J Neonatal Perinatal Med. 2020;13(4):507-11. Abstract

70. Moukoko D, Ezaki M, Wilkes D, et al. Posterior shoulder dislocation in infants with neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2004 Apr;86-A(4):787-93. Abstract

71. Michelow BJ, Clarke HM, Curtis CG, et al. The natural history of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994 Apr;93(4):675-80. Abstract

72. Curtis C, Stephens D, Clarke HM, et al. The active movement scale: an evaluative tool for infants with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 2002 May;27(3):470-8. Abstract

73. Mallet J. Obstetrical paralysis of the brachial plexus. II. Therapeutics. Treatment of sequelae. Priority for the treatment of the shoulder. Method for the expression of results [in French]. Rev Chir Orthop Reparatrice Appar Mot. 1972;58:Suppl 1:166-8. Abstract

74. Bae DS, Waters PM, Zurakowski D. Reliability of three classification systems measuring active motion in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Sep;85-A(9):1733-8. Abstract

75. Epelman M, Navarro OM, Daneman A, et al. M-mode sonography of diaphragmatic motion: description of technique and experience in 278 pediatric patients. Pediatr Radiol. 2005 Jul;35(7):661-7. Abstract

76. Bauer AS, Lucas JF, Heyrani N, et al. Ultrasound screening for posterior shoulder dislocation in infants with persistent brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017 May 3;99(9):778-83. Abstract

77. Gunes A, Gumeler E, Akgoz A, et al. Value of shoulder US compared to MRI in infants with obstetric brachial plexus paralysis. Diagn Interv Radiol. 2021 May;27(3):450-7.Full text  Abstract

78. Medina LS, Yaylali I, Zurakowski D, et al. Diagnostic performance of MRI and MR myelography in infants with a brachial plexus birth injury. Pediatr Radiol. 2006 Dec;36(12):1295-9. Abstract

79. Smith AB, Gupta N, Strober J, et al. Magnetic resonance neurography in children with birth-related brachial plexus injury. Pediatr Radiol. 2008 Feb;38(2):159-63. Abstract

80. Tse R, Nixon JN, Iyer RS, et al. The diagnostic value of CT myelography, MR myelography, and both in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jul;35(7):1425-32.Full text  Abstract

81. Waters PM. Comparison of the natural history, the outcome of microsurgical repair, and the outcome of operative reconstruction in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1999 May;81(5):649-59. Abstract

82. Iorio ML, Menashe SJ, Iyer RS, et al. Glenohumeral dysplasia following neonatal brachial plexus palsy: presentation and predictive features during infancy. J Hand Surg Am. 2015 Dec;40(12):2345-51.e1. Abstract

83. Reading BD, Laor T, Salisbury SR, et al. Quantification of humeral head deformity following neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2012 Sep 19;94(18):e136(1-8). Abstract

84. Pearl ML, Batech M, van de Bunt F. Humeral retroversion in children with shoulder internal rotation contractures secondary to upper-trunk neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2016 Dec 7;98(23):1988-95. Abstract

85. Shams A, AbdelRazek Ahmed A, Gamal O. Preoperative multislice computed tomography evaluation of shoulder deformities in brachial plexus birth palsy patients undergoing tendon transfer. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2019 Oct;10(suppl 1):S258-S263.Full text  Abstract

86. Pitt M, Vredeveld JW. The role of electromyography in the management of obstetric brachial plexus palsies. Suppl Clin Neurophysiol. 2004;57:272-9. Abstract

87. Lori S, Bertini G, Bastianelli M, et al. Peripheral nervous system maturation in preterm infants: longitudinal motor and sensory nerve conduction studies. Childs Nerv Syst. 2018 Jun;34(6):1145-52. Abstract

88. Ryan CS, Conlee EM, Sharma R, et al. Nerve conduction normal values for electrodiagnosis in pediatric patients. Muscle Nerve. 2019 Aug;60(2):155-60. Abstract

89. van der Looven R, Le Roy L, Tanghe E, et al. Early electrodiagnosis in the management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a systematic review. Muscle Nerve. 2020 May;61(5):557-66. Abstract

90. Orozco V, Balasubramanian S, Singh A. A systematic review of the electrodiagnostic assessment of neonatal brachial plexus. Neurol Neurobiol (Tallinn). 2020;3(2):10.31487/j.nnb.2020.02.12.Full text  Abstract

91. Kao JT, Sharma S, Curtis CG, et al. The role of the brachioradialis H reflex in the management and prognosis of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Handchir Mikrochir Plast Chir. 2003 Mar;35(2):106-11. Abstract

92. Gilbert A. Repair of the brachial plexus in the obstetrical lesions of the newborn [in French]. Arch Pediatr. 2008 Mar;15(3):330-3. Abstract

93. Talbert RJ, Michaud LJ, Mehlman CT, et al. EMG and MRI are independently related to shoulder external rotation function in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2011 Mar;31(2):194-204. Abstract

94. Bauer AS, Shen PY, Nidecker AE, et al. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging without sedation correlates with injury severity in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 2017 May;42(5):335-43.Full text  Abstract

95. Shen PY, Nidecker AE, Neufeld EA, et al. Non-sedated rapid volumetric proton density MRI predicts neonatal brachial plexus birth palsy functional outcome. J Neuroimaging. 2017 Mar;27(2):248-54.Full text  Abstract

96. Somashekar DK, Di Pietro MA, Joseph JR, et al. Utility of ultrasound in noninvasive preoperative workup of neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Pediatr Radiol. 2016 May;46(5):695-703. Abstract

97. Gunes A, Bulut E, Uzumcugil A, et al. Brachial plexus ultrasound and MRI in children with brachial plexus birth injury. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2018 Sep;39(9):1745-50.Full text  Abstract

98. Wall LB, Mills JK, Leveno K, et al. Incidence and prognosis of neonatal brachial plexus palsy with and without clavicle fractures. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Jun;123(6):1288-93. Abstract

99. Leshikar HB, Bauer AS, Lightdale-Miric N, et al. Clavicle fracture is not predictive of the need for microsurgery in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Feb;38(2):128-32. Abstract

100. Seddon HJ. A review of work on peripheral nerve injuries in Great Britain during World War II. J Nerv Ment Dis. 1948;108:160-168. Abstract

101. Vuillermin C, Bauer AS. Boston Children's Hospital approach to brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop B. 2016 Jul;25(4):296-304. Abstract

102. Abzug JM, Kozin SH. Evaluation and management of brachial plexus birth palsy. Orthop Clin North Am. 2014 Apr;45(2):225-32. Abstract

103. Buterbaugh KL, Shah AS. The natural history and management of brachial plexus birth palsy. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. 2016 Dec;9(4):418-26. Abstract

104. Frade F, Gómez-Salgado J, Jacobsohn L, et al. Rehabilitation of neonatal brachial plexus palsy: integrative literature review. J Clin Med. 2019 Jul 5;8(7):980.Full text  Abstract

105. Chang KW, Justice D, Chung KC, et al. A systematic review of evaluation methods for neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Oct;12(4):395-405. Abstract

106. Shah V, Coroneos CJ, Ng E. The evaluation and management of neonatal brachial plexus palsy. Paediatr Child Health. 2021 Dec;26(8):493-7.Full text  Abstract

107. Nayak A, D'Souza A, Bhat AK, et al. Role of early referral and surgical intervention in brachial plexus birth palsy: awareness among obstetricians and pediatricians in a teaching hospital. Int Q Community Health Educ. 2020 Jul;40(4):363-6.Full text  Abstract

108. Schmieg S, Nguyen JC, Pehnke M, et al. Team approach: management of brachial plexus birth injury. JBJS Rev. 2020 Jul;8(7):e1900200. Abstract

109. Malessy MJ, Pondaag W. Neonatal brachial plexus palsy with neurotmesis of C5 and avulsion of C6: supraclavicular reconstruction strategies and outcome. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Oct 15;96(20):e174. Abstract

110. Pondaag W, Malessy MJA. Evidence that nerve surgery improves functional outcome for obstetric brachial plexus injury. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2021 Mar;46(3):229-36.Full text  Abstract

111. Hale HB, Bae DS, Waters PM. Current concepts in the management of brachial plexus birth palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 2010 Feb;35(2):322-31. Abstract

112. Borschel GH, Clarke HM. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Jul;124(1 Suppl):144e-155e. Abstract

113. Vekris MD, Lykissas MG, Beris AE, et al. Management of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy with early plexus microreconstruction and late muscle transfers. Microsurgery. 2008;28(4):252-61. Abstract

114. Gilbert A, Pivato G, Kheiralla T. Long-term results of primary repair of brachial plexus lesions in children. Microsurgery. 2006;26(4):334-42. Abstract

115. Birch R, Ahad N, Kono H, et al. Repair of obstetric brachial plexus palsy: results in 100 children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2005 Aug;87(8):1089-95. Abstract

116. Haerle M, Gilbert A. Management of complete obstetric brachial plexus lesions. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2):194-200. Abstract

117. Grossman JA. Early operative intervention for birth injuries to the brachial plexus. Semin Pediatr Neurol. 2000 Mar;7(1):36-43. Abstract

118. Strombeck C, Krumlinde-Sundholm L, Forssberg H. Functional outcome at 5 years in children with obstetrical brachial plexus palsy with and without microsurgical reconstruction. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2000 Mar;42(3):148-57.Full text  Abstract

119. Nath RK, Liu X. Nerve reconstruction in patients with obstetric brachial plexus injury results in worsening of glenohumeral deformity: a case-control study of 75 patients. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2009 May;91(5):649-54. Abstract

120. Daly MC, Bauer AS, Lynch H, et al. Outcomes of late microsurgical nerve reconstruction for brachial plexus birth injury. J Hand Surg Am. 2020 Jun;45(6):555.e1-555.e9. Abstract

121. Basit H, Ali CDM, Madhani NB. Erb palsy. 2022 Feb 27. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Feb 27.Full text  Abstract

122. Seddon HJ, Medawar PB, Smith H. Rate of regeneration of peripheral nerves in man. J Physiol. 1943 Sep 30;102(2):191-215.Full text  Abstract

123. Annika J, Paul U, Anna-Lena L. Obstetric brachial plexus palsy - A prospective, population-based study of incidence, recovery and long-term residual impairment at 10 to 12 years of age. Eur J Paediatr Neurol. 2019 Jan;23(1):87-93.Full text  Abstract

124. Thatte MR, Nayak NS, Hiremath AS. Management of birth brachial plexus injury including use of distal nerve transfers. J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol. 2020 Sep;25(3):267-75.Full text  Abstract

125. Siqueira MG, Heise CO, Alencar GC, et al. Outcomes from primary surgical reconstruction of neonatal brachial plexus palsy in 104 children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2019 Feb;35(2):349-54. Abstract

126. Lin JC, Schwentker-Colizza A, Curtis CG, et al. Final results of grafting versus neurolysis in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Mar;123(3):939-48. Abstract

127. Lara AM, Bhatia A, Correa JC, et al. Intercostal nerve transfers to the musculocutaneous - a reliable nerve transfer for restoration of elbow flexion in birth-related brachial plexus injuries. Indian J Plast Surg. 2020 Aug;53(2):254-9.Full text  Abstract

128. Segal D, Cornwall R, Little KJ. Outcomes of spinal accessory-to-suprascapular nerve transfers for brachial plexus birth Injury. J Hand Surg Am. 2019 Jul;44(7):578-87. Abstract

129. Abzug JM, Chafetz RS, Gaughan JP, et al. Shoulder function after medial approach and derotational humeral osteotomy in patients with brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2010 Jul-Aug;30(5):469-74. Abstract

130. Bae DS, Ferretti M, Waters PM. Upper extremity size differences in brachial plexus birth palsy. Hand (N Y). 2008 Dec;3(4):297-303.Full text  Abstract

131. McDaid PJ, Kozin SH, Thoder JJ, et al. Upper extremity limb-length discrepancy in brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2002 May-Jun;22(3):364-6. Abstract

132. Ho ES, Kim D, Klar K, et al. Prevalence and etiology of elbow flexion contractures in brachial plexus birth injury: a scoping review. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2019;12(1):75-86. Abstract

133. Soldado F, Fontecha CG, Marotta M, et al. The role of muscle imbalance in the pathogenesis of shoulder contracture after neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a study in a rat model. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2014 Jul;23(7):1003-9. Abstract

134. Mascarenhas VV, Casaccia M, Fernandez-Martin A, et al. The role of subscapularis muscle denervation in the pathogenesis of shoulder internal rotation contracture after neonatal brachial plexus palsy: a study in a rat model. J Orthop Res. 2014 Dec;32(12):1675-9.Full text  Abstract

135. Nikolaou S, Peterson E, Kim A, et al. Impaired growth of denervated muscle contributes to contracture formation following neonatal brachial plexus injury. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2011 Mar 2;93(5):461-70. Abstract

136. Weekley H, Nikolaou S, Hu L, et al. The effects of denervation, reinnervation, and muscle imbalance on functional muscle length and elbow flexion contracture following neonatal brachial plexus injury. J Orthop Res. 2012 Aug;30(8):1335-42.Full text  Abstract

137. Kozin SH. Correlation between external rotation of the glenohumeral joint and deformity after brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2004 Mar-Apr;24(2):189-93. Abstract

138. Buchanan PJ, Grossman JAI, Price AE, et al. The use of botulinum toxin injection for brachial plexus birth injuries: a systematic review of the literature. Hand (N Y). 2019 Mar;14(2):150-4. Abstract

139. Gobets D, Beckerman H, de Groot V, et al. Indications and effects of botulinum toxin A for obstetric brachial plexus injury: a systematic literature review. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2010 Jun;52(6):517-28.Full text  Abstract

140. Greenhill DA, Wissinger K, Trionfo A, et al. External rotation predicts outcomes after closed glenohumeral joint reduction with botulinum toxin type A in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2018 Jan;38(1):32-7. Abstract

141. Waters PM, Bae DS. The early effects of tendon transfers and open capsulorrhaphy on glenohumeral deformity in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2008 Oct;90(10):2171-9. Abstract

142. van Kooten EO, Fortuin S, Winters HA, et al. Results of latissimus dorsi transfer in obstetrical brachial plexus injury. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2008 Sep;12(3):195-9. Abstract

143. Waters PM, Bae DS. Effect of tendon transfers and extra-articular soft-tissue balancing on glenohumeral development in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2005 Feb;87(2):320-5. Abstract

144. Pagnotta A, Haerle M, Gilbert A. Long-term results on abduction and external rotation of the shoulder after latissimus dorsi transfer for sequelae of obstetric palsy. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2004 Sep;(426):199-205. Abstract

145. Hoffer MM, Wickenden R, Roper B. Brachial plexus birth palsies: results of tendon transfers to the rotator cuff. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1978 Jul;60(5):691-5. Abstract

146. Alluri RK, Lightdale-Miric N, Meisel E, et al. Functional outcomes of tendon transfer for brachial plexus birth palsy using the Hoffer technique. Bone Joint J. 2020 Feb;102-B(2):246-53. Abstract

147. Pearl ML, Edgerton BW, Kazimiroff PA, et al. Arthroscopic release and latissimus dorsi transfer for shoulder internal rotation contractures and glenohumeral deformity secondary to brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 Mar;88(3):564-74. Abstract

148. Pearl ML. Arthroscopic release of shoulder contracture secondary to birth palsy: an early report on findings and surgical technique. Arthroscopy. 2003 Jul-Aug;19(6):577-82. Abstract

149. Pedowitz DI, Gibson B, Williams GR, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of posterior glenohumeral joint subluxation resulting from brachial plexus birth palsy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2007 Jan-Feb;16(1):6-13. Abstract

150. Kozin SH, Boardman MJ, Chafetz RS, et al. Arthroscopic treatment of internal rotation contracture and glenohumeral dysplasia in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2010 Jan;19(1):102-10. Abstract

151. Ruyer J, Grosclaude S, Lacroix P, et al. Arthroscopic isolated capsular release for shoulder contracture after brachial plexus birth palsy: clinical outcomes in a prospective cohort of 28 children with 2 years' follow-up. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2018 Aug;27(8):e243-e251. Abstract

152. Burnier M, Le Hanneur M, Cambon-Binder A, et al. Isolated open anterior shoulder release in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Jul;28(7):1347-55. Abstract

153. Jönsson K, Werner M, Roos F, et al. Development of the glenohumeral joint after subscapular release and open relocation in children with brachial plexus birth palsy: long-term results in 61 patients. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. 2019 Oct;28(10):1983-90. Abstract

154. Louden EJ, Broering CA, Mehlman CT, et al. Meta-analysis of function after secondary shoulder surgery in neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2013 Sep;33(6):656-63. Abstract

155. Brogan DM, Leversedge FJ. Surgical technique and anatomical considerations for the modified L'Episcopo tendon transfer. Hand (N Y). 2019 Jan;14(1):34-41.Full text  Abstract

156. El-Gammal TA, Ali AE, Kotb MM, et al. Long-term evaluation of teres major to infraspinatus transfer for treatment of shoulder sequelae in obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Ann Plast Surg. 2020 May;84(5):565-9. Abstract

157. Maurya S, Bhandari PS, Chaitanya S. Conjoint muscle transfer and subscapularis slide in brachial plexus birth palsy: clinical outcomes in shoulder functions. Med J Armed Forces India. 2021 Apr;77(2):181-6. Abstract

158. Maurel N, Diop A, Lallemant-Dudek P, et al. Upper limb kinematics after latissimus dorsi transfer in children with brachial plexus birth palsy. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2021 Jul;87:105413. Abstract

159. Russo SA, Richardson RT, Richards JG, et al. Effect of glenohumeral reduction type combined with tendon transfer for brachial plexus injury on objective, functional, and patient-reported outcomes. J Hand Surg Am. 2021 Jul;46(7):624.e1-624.e11. Abstract

160. Shahcheraghi GH, Javid M, Zamir-Azad M. The outcome of soft-tissue release and tendon transfer in shoulders with brachial plexus birth palsy. JSES Int. 2021 Sep;5(5):905-11.Full text  Abstract

161. Greenhill DA, Trionfo A, Ramsey FV, et al. Postoperative loss of midline function in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Hand Surg Am. 2018 Jun;43(6):565.e1-565.e10.Full text  Abstract

162. Abzug JM, Wyrick-Glover TO, Case AL, et al. Loss of midline function in brachial plexus birth palsy patients. J Pediatr Orthop. 2019 Mar;39(3):e232-e235. Abstract

163. Abzug JM, Miller E, Case AL, et al. Single versus double tendon transfer toimprove shoulder external rotation during the treatment of brachial plexus birth palsy. Hand (N Y). 2022 Jan;17(1):55-9. Abstract

164. Waters PM, Bae DS. The effect of derotational humeral osteotomy on global shoulder function in brachial plexus birth palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006 May;88(5):1035-42. Abstract

165. Ruhmann O, Gosse F, Schmolke S, et al. Osteotomy of the humerus to improve external rotation in nine patients with brachial plexus palsy. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2002;36(6):349-55. Abstract

166. Duclos L, Gilbert A. Restoration of wrist extension by tendon transfer in cases of obstetrical brachial plexus palsy. Ann Chir Main Memb Super. 1999;18(1):7-12. Abstract

167. DeDeugd CM, Shin AY, Shaughnessy WJ. Derotational pronation-producing osteotomy of the radius and biceps tendon rerouting for supination contractures in neonatal brachial plexus palsy patients. Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2018 Mar;22(1):10-14. Abstract

168. Clippinger BB, Plucknette BF, Soldado F, et al. The one-bone forearm in children: surgical technique and a retrospective review of outcomes. J Hand Surg Am. 2022 Feb;47(2):189.e1-189.e9. Abstract

169. Ramachandran M, Eastwood DM. Botulinum toxin and its orthopaedic applications. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2006;88:981-987. Abstract

170. Shin YB, Shin MJ, Chang JH, et al. Effects of botulinum toxin on reducing the co-contraction of antagonists in birth brachial plexus palsy. Ann Rehabil Med. 2014;38:127-131.Full text  Abstract

171. Morscher MA, Thomas MD, Sahgal S, et al. Onabotulinum toxin type A injection into the triceps unmasks elbow flexion in infant brachial plexus birth palsy: A retrospective observational cohort study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Aug 21;99(34):e21830.Full text  Abstract

172. Eggers R, Tannemaat MR, De Winter F, et al. Clinical and neurobiological advances in promoting regeneration of the ventral root avulsion lesion. Eur J Neurosci. 2016 Feb;43(3):318-35. Abstract

173. Eggers R, de Winter F, Arkenaar C, et al. Enhanced regeneration and reinnervation following timed GDNF gene therapy in a cervical ventral root avulsion. Exp Neurol. 2019 Nov;321:113037. Abstract

174. Vu AT, Sparkman DM, van Belle CJ, et al. Retropharyngeal contralateral C7 nerve transfer to the lower trunk for brachial plexus birth injury: technique and results. J Hand Surg Am. 2018 May;43(5):417-24.Full text  Abstract

175. Chen L, Gu YD, Hu SN, et al. Contralateral C7 transfer for the treatment of brachial plexus root avulsions in children - a report of 12 cases. J Hand Surg Am. 2007 Jan;32(1):96-103. Abstract

176. Bae DS, Zurakowski D, Avallone N, et al. Sports participation in selected children with brachial plexus birth palsy. J Pediatr Orthop. 2009 Jul-Aug;29(5):496-503. Abstract

177. Bénié CA, Akobé JRA, Lohourou FG, et al. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (PBOPP): epidemiological, therapeutic and evolutionary features of patients at the Bouaké University Hospital, Ivory Coast [in French]. Pan Afr Med J. 2021;38:309. Abstract

178. Yau CWH, Pizzo E, Prajapati C, et al. Obstetric brachial plexus injuries (OBPIs): health-related quality of life in affected adults and parents. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2018 Nov 15;16(1):212.Full text  Abstract

179. Eismann EA, Bauer A, Kozin SH, et al. The relationship between medical malpractice litigation and parent reports of patient function following neonatal brachial plexus palsy. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2014 Mar 5;96(5):373-9. Abstract

180. Werthel JD, Schoch B, Frankle M, et al. Shoulder arthroplasty for sequelae of obstetrical brachial plexus injury. J Hand Surg Am. 2018 Sep;43(9):871.e1-871.e7.Full text  Abstract

181. Belkheyar Z, Belkacem Djeffel A, Cambon-Binder A. Glenohumeral fusion in adults with sequelae of obstetrical brachial plexus injury: a report of eight cases. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2019 Mar;44(3):248-55. Abstract

182. Hulleberg G, Elvrum AK, Brandal M, et al. Outcome in adolescence of brachial plexus birth palsy. 69 individuals re-examined after 10–20 years. Acta Orthop. 2014 Dec;85(6):633-40.Full text  Abstract

183. Butler L, Mills J, Richard HM, et al. Long-term follow-up of neonatal brachial plexopathy: psychological and physical function in adolescents and young adults. J Pediatr Orthop. 2017 Sep;37(6):e364-e368. Abstract

184. Ploetze K, Goldfarb C, Roberts S, et al. Radiographic and clinical outcomes of the shoulder in long-term follow-up of brachial plexus birth injury. J Hand Surg Am. 2020 Dec;45(12):1115-22. Abstract

185. Overland EA, Spydslaug A, Nielsen CS, et al. Risk of shoulder dystocia in second delivery: does a history of shoulder dystocia matter? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 May;200(5):506.e1-6. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer