Cryptorchidism

References

Key articles

Virtanen HE, Toppari J. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):49-58.Full text  Abstract

Hutson JM, Clarke MC. Current management of the undescended testicle. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;16(1):64-70. Abstract

Kolon TF, Herndon CD, Baker LA, et al. Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):337-45.Full text  Abstract

Kollin C, Stukenborg JB, Nurmio M, et al. Boys with undescended testes: endocrine, volumetric and morphometric studies on testicular function before and after orchidopexy at nine months or three years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4588-95. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Ritzén EM, Bergh A, Bjerknes R, et al. Nordic consensus on treatment of undescended testes. Acta Paediatr. 2007 May;96(5):638-43.Full text  Abstract

2. Virtanen HE, Toppari J. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of cryptorchidism. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):49-58.Full text  Abstract

3. Brucker-Davis F, Pointis G, Chevallier D, et al. Update on cryptorchidism: endocrine, environmental and therapeutic aspects. J Endocrinol Invest. 2003 Jun;26(6):575-87. Abstract

4. Scorer CG. The descent of the testis. Arch Dis Child. 1964 Dec;39:605-9.Full text  Abstract

5. John Radcliffe Hospital Cryptorchidism Study Group. Cryptorchidism: a prospective study of 7500 consecutive male births, 1984-8. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Jul;67(7):892-9.Full text  Abstract

6. Abdullah NA, Pearce MS, Parker L, et al. Birth prevalence of cryptorchidism and hypospadias in northern England, 1993-2000. Arch Dis Child. 2007 Jul;92(7):576-9. Abstract

7. Vidaeff AC, Sever LE. In utero exposure to environmental estrogens and male reproductive health: a systematic review of biological and epidemiologic evidence. Reprod Toxicol. 2005 May-Jun;20(1):5-20. Abstract

8. Ivell R, Hartung S. The molecular basis of cryptorchidism. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003 Apr;9(4):175-81.Full text  Abstract

9. Verkauskas G, Malcius D, Eidukaite A, et al. Prospective study of histological and endocrine parameters of gonadal function in boys with cryptorchidism. J Pediatr Urol. 2016 Aug;12(4):238.e1-6. Abstract

10. Hutson JM, Lopez-Marambio FA. The possible role of AMH in shortening the gubernacular cord in testicular descent: a reappraisal of the evidence. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Oct;52(10):1656-60. Abstract

11. Damgaard IN, Skakkebaek NE, Toppari J, et al. Persistent pesticides in human breast milk and cryptorchidism. Environ Health Perspect. 2006 Jul;114(7):1133-8.Full text  Abstract

12. Fratrić I, Varga J, Vukmirović S, et al. Cryptorchidism and pesticides: Is there a connection? J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Jul;52(7):1166-8. Abstract

13. Goodyer CG, Poon S, Aleksa K, et al. A case-control study of maternal polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposure and cryptorchidism in Canadian populations. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 May 26;125(5):057004.Full text  Abstract

14. Sathyanarayana S, Grady R, Barrett ES, et al. First trimester phthalate exposure and male newborn genital anomalies. Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:777-82. Abstract

15. Mongraw-Chaffin ML, Cohn BA, Cohen RD, et al. Maternal smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine consumption during pregnancy in relation to a son's risk of persistent cryptorchidism: a prospective study in the Child Health and Development Studies cohort, 1959-1967. Am J Epidemiol. 2008 Feb 1;167(3):257-61.Full text  Abstract

16. Jensen MS, Rebordosa C, Thulstrup AM, et al. Maternal use of acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and acetylsalicylic acid during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism. Epidemiology. 2010 Nov;21(6):779-85. Abstract

17. Philippat C, Giorgis-Allemand L, Chevrier C, et al. Analgesics during pregnancy and undescended testis. Epidemiology. 2011 Sep;22(5):747-9. Abstract

18. Hackshaw A, Rodeck C, Boniface S. Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects: a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11.7 million controls. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Sep-Oct;17(5):589-604.Full text  Abstract

19. Damgaard IN, Jensen TK, Petersen JH, et al. Cryptorchidism and maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Feb;115(2):272-7.Full text  Abstract

20. Carragher AM, McLean RD. Familial bilateral cryptorchidism. Br J Clin Pract. 1990 Dec;44(12):688-9. Abstract

21. Elert A, Jahn K, Heidenreich A, et al. The familial undescended testis [in German]. Klin Padiatr. 2003 Jan-Feb;215(1):40-5. Abstract

22. Ferlin A, Bogatcheva NV, Gianesello L, et al. Insulin-like factor 3 gene mutations in testicular dysgenesis syndrome: clinical and functional characterization. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006 Jun;12(6):401-6.Full text  Abstract

23. Feng S, Cortessis V, Hwang A, et al. Mutation analysis of INSL3 and GREAT/LGR8 genes in familial cryptorchidism. Urology. 2004 Nov;64(5):1032-6. Abstract

24. Wang Y, Wei Y, Tang X, et al. Association between androgen receptor polymorphic CAG and GGC repeat lengths and cryptorchidism: a meta-analysis of case-control studies. J Pediatr Urol. 2018 Jun 7;14(5):432.e1-9. Abstract

25. Wang Q, Ge X, Wang HX, et al. Association of androgen receptor gene CAG and GGN repeat polymorphism with cryptorchidism: a meta-analysis. Andrologia. 2017 Oct 18;50(3):e12909. Abstract

26. Ahmed SF, Achermann J, Alderson J, et al. Society for Endocrinology UK Guidance on the initial evaluation of a suspected difference or disorder of sex development (Revised 2021). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2021 Dec;95(6):818-40.Full text  Abstract

27. Moreno-Garcia M, Miranda EB. Chromosomal anomalies in cryptorchidism and hypospadias. J Urol. 2002 Nov;168(5):2170-2; discussion 2172. Abstract

28. Lie G, Hutson JM. The role of cremaster muscle in testicular descent in humans and animal models. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011 Dec;27(12):1255-65. Abstract

29. Arena S, Favaloro A, La Face A, et al. Altered integrins expression of patients affected by cryptorchidism. Urol Int. 2018 Aug 8;101(2):219-23. Abstract

30. Favorito LA, Anderson KM, Costa SF, et al. Structural study of the cremaster muscle in patients with retractile testis. J Pediatr Surg. 2017 Apr 28;53(4):780-3. Abstract

31. Hutson JM, Hasthorpe S. Abnormalities of testicular descent. Cell Tissue Res. 2005 Oct;322(1):155-8. Abstract

32. Barthold JS, Pugarelli J, MacDonald ML, et al. Polygenic inheritance of cryptorchidism susceptibility in the LE/orl rat. Mol Hum Reprod. 2016 Jan;22(1):18-34. Abstract

33. Barthold JS, Wang Y, Kolon TF, et al. Pathway analysis supports association of nonsyndromic cryptorchidism with genetic loci linked to cytoskeleton-dependent functions. Hum Reprod. 2015 Oct;30(10):2439-51. Abstract

34. Baker LA, Silver RI, Docimo SG. Cryptorchidism. In: Gearhart JP, Rink RC, Mouriquand PE, eds. Pediatric urology. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2001:738-53.

35. Hutson JM, Clarke MC. Current management of the undescended testicle. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2007 Feb;16(1):64-70. Abstract

36. Pierik FH, Burdorf A, Deddens JA, et al. Maternal and paternal risk factors for cryptorchidism and hypospadias: a case-control study in newborn boys. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Nov;112(15):1570-6. Abstract

37. Akre O, Lipworth L, Cnattingius S, et al. Risk factor patterns for cryptorchidism and hypospadias. Epidemiology. 1999 Jul;10(4):364-9. Abstract

38. Preiksa RT, Zilaitiene B, Matulevicius V, et al. Higher than expected prevalence of congenital cryptorchidism in Lithuania: a study of 1204 boys at birth and 1 year follow-up. Human Reprod. 2005 Jul;20(7):1928-32.Full text  Abstract

39. Chen J, Wu S, Wen S, et al. The mechanism of environmental endocrine disruptors (DEHP) induces epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of cryptorchidism. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 2;10(6):e0126403.Full text  Abstract

40. Koskenniemi JJ, Virtanen HE, Kiviranta H, et al. Association between levels of persistent organic pollutants in adipose tissue and cryptorchidism in early childhood: a case-control study. Environ Health. 2015 Sep 24;14:78.Full text  Abstract

41. Hart RJ, Frederiksen H, Doherty DA, et al. The possible impact of antenatal exposure to ubiquitous phthalates upon male reproductive function at 20 years of age. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2018 Jun 4;9:288.Full text  Abstract

42. Anand-Ivell R, Cohen A, Nørgaard-Pedersen B, et al. Amniotic fluid INSL3 measured during the critical time window in human pregnancy relates to cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and phthalate load: a large case-control study. Front Physiol. 2018 Apr 24;9:406.Full text  Abstract

43. Fernández MF, Arrebola JP, Jiménez-Díaz I, et al. Bisphenol A and other phenols in human placenta from children with cryptorchidism or hypospadias. Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Jan;59:89-95. Abstract

44. Murase K, Murase J, Machidori K, et al. Nationwide increase in cryptorchidism after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Urology. 2018 May 8;118:65-70. Abstract

45. Gurney J, Richiardi L, McGlynn KA, et al. Analgesia use during pregnancy and risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod. 2017 May 1;32(5):1118-29. Abstract

46. Zhang L, Wang XH, Zheng XM, et al. Maternal gestational smoking, diabetes, alcohol drinking, pre-pregnancy obesity and the risk of cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 23;10(3):e0119006.Full text  Abstract

47. Lane C, Boxall J, MacLellan D, et al. A population-based study of prevalence trends and geospatial analysis of hypospadias and cryptorchidism compared with non-endocrine mediated congenital anomalies. J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Jun;13(3):284.e1-7. Abstract

48. Virtanen HE, Tapanainen AE, Kaleva MM, et al. Mild gestational diabetes as a risk factor for congenital cryptorchidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;91(12):4862-5.Full text  Abstract

49. Hughes K, Horwood JF, Clements C, et al. Complications of inguinal herniotomy are comparable in term and premature infants. Hernia. 2016 Aug;20(4):565-9. Abstract

50. Kolon TF, Herndon CD, Baker LA, et al. Evaluation and treatment of cryptorchidism: AUA guideline. J Urol. 2014 Aug;192(2):337-45.Full text  Abstract

51. Radmayr C. Management of undescended testes: European Association of Urology/European Society for Paediatric Urology guidelines. J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Oct;13(5):550. Abstract

52. Cho A, Thomas J, Perera R, et al. Undescended testis. BMJ. 2019 Mar 25;364:l926. Abstract

53. Tasian GE, Copp HL. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):119-28. Abstract

54. Teo AQ, Khan AR, Williams MP, et al. Is surgical exploration necessary in bilateral anorchia? J Pediatr Urol. 2013 Feb;9(1):e78-81.Full text  Abstract

55. Brauner R, Neve M, Allali S, et al. Clinical, biological and genetic analysis of anorchia in 26 boys. PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23292.Full text  Abstract

56. Davenport M, Brain C, Vandenberg C, et al. The use of the hCG stimulation test in the endocrine evaluation of cryptorchidism. Br J Urol. 1995 Dec;76(6):790-4. Abstract

57. Kollin C, Hesser U, Ritzén EM, et al. Testicular growth from birth to two years of age, and the effect of orchidopexy at age nine months: a randomized, controlled study. Acta Paediatr. 2016 Jun;101(6):2570-7. Abstract

58. Sadov S, Koskenniemi JJ, Virtanen HE, et al. Testicular growth during puberty in boys with and without a history of congenital cryptorchidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jun;101(6):2570-7. Abstract

59. Shadpour P, Kashi AH, Arvin A. Scrotal testis size in unilateral non-palpable cryptorchidism, what it can and cannot tell: study of a Middle Eastern population. J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Jun;13(3):268.e1-6. Abstract

60. Hodhod A, Capolicchio JP, Jednak R, et al. Testicular hypertrophy as a predictor for contralateral monorchism: retrospective review of prospectively recorded data. J Pediatr Urol. 2016 Feb;12(1):34.e1-5. Abstract

61. Wong NC, Bansal NK, Lorenzo AJ, et al. Misuse of ultrasound for palpable undescended testis by primary care providers: a prospective study. Can Urol Assoc J. 2015 Nov-Dec;9(11-12):387-90.Full text  Abstract

62. Kanaroglou N, To T, Zhu J, et al. Inappropriate use of ultrasound in management of pediatric cryptorchidism. Pediatrics. 2015 Sep;136(3):479-86. Abstract

63. Krishnaswami S, Fonnesbeck C, Penson D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging for locating nonpalpable undescended testicles: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):e1908-16.Full text  Abstract

64. Nguyen HT, Coakley F, Hricak H. Cryptorchidism: strategies in detection. Eur Radiol. 1999;9(2):336-43. Abstract

65. Eggener SE, Lotan Y, Cheng EG. Magnetic resonance angiography for the nonpalpable testis: a cost and cancer risk analysis. J Urol. 2005 May;173(5):1745-9. Abstract

66. Tasian GE, Copp HL. Diagnostic performance of ultrasound in nonpalpable cryptorchidism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):119-28. Abstract

67. Esposito S, Cofini M, Rigante D, et al. Inhibin B in healthy and cryptorchid boys. Ital J Pediatr. 2018 Jul 16;44(1):81.Full text  Abstract

68. Pettersson A, Richiardi L, Nordenskjold A, et al. Age at surgery for undescended testis and risk of testicular cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 3;356(18):1835-41.Full text  Abstract

69. Ritzén EM. Undescended testes: a consensus on management. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Dec;159(suppl 1):S87-90.Full text  Abstract

70. Chan E, Wayne C, Nasr A, et al; FRCSC for Canadian Association of Pediatric Surgeon Evidence-Based Resource. Ideal timing of orchiopexy: a systematic review. Pediatr Surg Int. 2014 Jan;30(1):87-97. Abstract

71. Komarowska MD, Hermanowicz A, Debek W. Putting the pieces together: cryptorchidism - do we know everything? J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Nov 1;28(11-12):1247-56. Abstract

72. Kollin C, Stukenborg JB, Nurmio M, et al. Boys with undescended testes: endocrine, volumetric and morphometric studies on testicular function before and after orchidopexy at nine months or three years of age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Dec;97(12):4588-95. Abstract

73. Thorsson AV, Christiansen P, Ritzén M. Efficacy and safety of hormonal treatment of cryptorchidism: current state of the art. Acta Paediatr. 2007 May;96(5):628-30. Abstract

74. Penson D, Krishnaswami S, Jules A, et al. Effectiveness of hormonal and surgical therapies for cryptorchidism: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2013 Jun;131(6):e1897-907.Full text  Abstract

75. Wei Y, Wang Y, Tang X, et al. Efficacy and safety of human chorionic gonadotropin for treatment of cryptorchidism: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Paediatr Child Health. 2018 Apr 14;54(8):900-6. Abstract

76. Li T, Gao L, Chen P, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies assessing the efficacy of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone therapy for children with cryptorchidism. Int Urol Nephrol. 2016 May;48(5):635-44. Abstract

77. Wei Y, Wu SD, Wang YC, et al. A 22-year retrospective study: educational update and new referral pattern of age at orchidopexy. BJU Int. 2016 Dec;118(6):987-93. Abstract

78. Vikraman J, Donath S, Hutson Ao JM. Undescended testes: diagnosis and timely treatment in Australia (1995-2014). Aust Fam Physician. 2017 Mar;46(3):152-8. Abstract

79. Williams K, Baumann L, Shah A, et al. Age at orchiopexy for undescended testis in the United States. J Pediatr Surg. 2018 Jan;53(1):86-9. Abstract

80. Bergbrant S, Omling E, Björk J, et al. Cryptorchidism in Sweden: a nationwide study of prevalence, operative management, and complications. J Pediatr. 2018 Jan 10;194:197-203.e6. Abstract

81. European Association of Urology. Paediatric urology. 2019 [internet publication].Full text

82. Braga LH, Lorenzo AJ, Romao RLP. Canadian Urological Association-Pediatric Urologists of Canada (CUA-PUC) guideline for the diagnosis, management, and followup of cryptorchidism. Can Urol Assoc J. 2017 Jul;11(7):E251-60.Full text  Abstract

83. Savoie KB, Bachier-Rodriguez M, Schurtz E, et al. Health disparities in the appropriate management of cryptorchidism. J Pediatr. 2017 Jun;185:187-92.e1. Abstract

84. Boehme P, Geis B, Doerner J, et al. Shortcomings in the management of undescended testis: guideline intention vs reality and the underlying causes - insights from the biggest German cohort. BJU Int. 2018 Mar 9;122(4):644-53. Abstract

85. Cancian M, Ellsworth P, Caldamone A. Contralateral metachronous undescended testis: is it predictable? J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Mar 28;13(5):504.e1-5. Abstract

86. Dayanc M, Kibar Y, Irkilata H, et al. Long-term outcome of scrotal incision orchiopexy for undescended testis. Urology. 2007 Oct;70(4):786-8. Abstract

87. Feng S, Yang H, Li X, et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy versus the inguinal approach in children with palpable undescended testis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2016 Oct;32(10):989-95. Abstract

88. Na SW, Kim SO, Hwang EC, et al. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy for children with palpable low-lying undescended testis: early outcome of a prospective randomized controlled study. Korean J Urol. 2011 Sep;52(9):637-41.Full text  Abstract

89. Ramzan M, Sheikh AH, Qureshi MS, et al. Single incision trans scrotal versus standard inguino-scrotal orchidopexy in children with palpable undescended testis: our experience from April 2007 to April 2010. Pak J Med Sci. 2012 Oct-Dec;28(5):827-9.Full text

90. Lopes RI, Naoum NK, Chua ME, et al. Outcome analysis of redo orchiopexy: scrotal vs inguinal. J Urol. 2016 Sep;196(3):869-74. Abstract

91. Docimo SG. The results of surgical therapy for cryptorchidism: a literature review and analysis. J Urol. 1995 Sep;154(3):1148-52. Abstract

92. Taran I, Elder JS. Results of orchiopexy for the undescended testis. World J Urol. 2006 Aug;24(3):231-9. Abstract

93. SAGES Guidelines Committee. Guidelines for diagnostic laparoscopy. 2007 [internet publication].Full text

94. Elder JS. Laparoscopy for impalpable testes: significance of the patent processus vaginalis. J Urol. 1994 Aug;152(2 Pt 2):776-8. Abstract

95. Baker LA, Docimo SG, Surer I, et al. A multi-institutional analysis of laparoscopic orchidopexy. BJU Int. 2001 Apr;87(6):484-9. Abstract

96. Sturm R, Kurzrock E, Amend G, et al. Blind ending vessels on diagnostic laparoscopy for nonpalpable testis: is a nubbin present? J Pediatr Urol. 2017 Aug;13(4):392.e1-6. Abstract

97. Kehoe JE, Christman MS. To 'pex or not to 'pex: what to do for the contralateral testis when a nubbin is discovered. Curr Urol Rep. 2017 Feb;18(2):9. Abstract

98. Elyas R, Guerra LA, Pike J, et al. Is staging beneficial for Fowler-Stephens orchiopexy? A systematic review. J Urol. 2010 May;183(5):2012-8. Abstract

99. Guo J, Liang Z, Zhang H, et al. Laparoscopic versus open orchiopexy for non-palpable undescended testes in children: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Pediatr Surg Int. 2011 Sep;27(9):943-52. Abstract

100. Wood HM, Elder JS. Cryptorchidism and testicular cancer: separating fact from fiction. J Urol. 2009 Feb;181(2):452-61. Abstract

101. Koh KB. Beware the undescended testis and abdominal mass. Aust N Z J Surg. 1996 Dec;66(12):851-3. Abstract

102. Ryang SH, Jung JH, Eom M, et al. The incidence and histological characteristics of intratubular germ cell neoplasia in postpubertal cryptorchid testis. Korean J Urol. 2015 Jul;56(7):515-8.Full text  Abstract

103. Kang KJ, Kim HS, Oh TH. The clinical experience on orchiectomy in the postpubertal unilateral cryptorchidism. Korean J Urol. 1999 Oct;40(10):1371-6.Full text

104. Oh J, Landman J, Evers A, et al. Management of the postpubertal patient with cryptorchidism: an updated analysis. J Urol. 2002 Mar;167(3):1329-33. Abstract

105. Kozminski DJ, Kraft KH, Bloom DA. Orchiopexy without transparenchymal fixation suturing: a 29-year experience. J Urol. 2015 Dec;194(6):1743-7. Abstract

106. Ribeiro CT, De Souza DB, Costa WS, et al. Effects of testicular transfixation on seminiferous tubule morphology and sperm parameters of prepubertal, pubertal, and adult rats. Theriogenology. 2015 Oct 15;84(7):1142-8. Abstract

107. Walsh TJ, Dall'Era MA, Croughan MS, et al. Prepubertal orchiopexy for cryptorchidism may be associated with lower risk of testicular cancer. J Urol. 2007 Oct;178(4 Pt 1):1440-6. Abstract

108. Raman JD, Schlegel PN. Testicular sperm extraction with intracytoplasmic sperm injection is successful for the treatment of nonobstructive azoospermia associated with cryptorchidism. J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1287-90. Abstract

109. Dohle GR, Colpi GM, Hargreave TB, et al. EAU guidelines on male infertility. Eur Urol. 2005 Nov;48(5):703-11. Abstract

110. Irkilata HC, Dayanc M, Yildirim I, et al. Low sperm recovery from the undescended testis with testicular sperm extraction in postpubertal cryptorchids: preliminary report. Andrologia. 2005 Jun;37(2-3):65-8. Abstract

111. Lee PA, Coughlin MT. Fertility after bilateral cryptorchidism. Evaluation by paternity, hormone, and semen data. Horm Res. 2001;55(1):28-32. Abstract

112. van Brakel J, Dinkelman-Smit M, de Muinck Keizer-Schrama SMPF, et al. Sperm DNA damage measured by sperm chromatin structure assay in men with a history of undescended testes. Andrology. 2017 Jul;5(4):838-43. Abstract

113. Hamdi SM, Almont T, Galinier P, et al. Altered secretion of Sertoli cells hormones in 2-year-old prepubertal cryptorchid boys: a cross-sectional study. Andrology. 2017 Jul;5(4):783-9. Abstract

114. Rohayem J, Luberto A, Nieschlag E, et al. Delayed treatment of undescended testes may promote hypogonadism and infertility. Endocrine. 2017 Mar;55(3):914-24. Abstract

115. Durell J, Johal N, Burge D, et al. Testicular atrophy following paediatric primary orchidopexy: a prospective study. J Pediatr Urol. 2016 Aug;12(4):243.e1-4. Abstract

116. Adomaitis R, Vincel B, Eidukaite A, et al. Consequences of bilateral cryptorchidism in adults. Andrologia. 2016 Nov;48(9):933-8. Abstract

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