Last reviewed:September 2019
Last updated:February  2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • headache
  • nausea and vomiting

Other diagnostic factors

  • behavioural changes
  • diplopia
  • ophthalmoplegias
  • bulging anterior fontanelle
  • papilloedema
  • nystagmus
  • head tilt
  • ataxia
  • dysmetria

Risk factors

  • age 3-8 years
  • male sex
  • associated inherited familial syndromes

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • brain MRI
  • brain CT
  • histology
  • cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine MRI
  • lumbar puncture
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Consultant Clinical Oncologist

Department of Oncology

Addenbrooke's Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

GH has done paid consultancy work for Janssen and Bayer, and holds shares in GenesisCare.

Consultant Clinical Oncologist

Addenbrookes Hospital

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

FH declares that she has no competing interests.

Consultant Clinical Oncologist

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust

Cambridge

UK

Disclosures

TVA declares that she has no competing interests.

Dr Gail Horan, Dr Fiona Harris, and Dr Thankamma V. Ajithkumar would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Sindu Vivekanandan, Dr Barry Pizer, Dr Michael J. Fisher, Dr Phillip B. Storm, and Dr Gregory G. Heuer, the previous contributors to this topic.

Peer reviewersVIEW ALL

Division of Neurosurgery

University of Toronto

Toronto

Ontario

Canada

Disclosures

DR declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Paediatric Neurosurgery

Nottingham University Hospital

Nottingham

UK

Disclosures

MV declares that he has no competing interests.

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