Last reviewed: 25 Sep 2021
Last updated: 16 Sep 2021

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • groin discomfort or pain with bulge
  • groin mass
  • abdominal discomfort or pain
  • acute abdomen

Risk factors

  • male sex
  • older age
  • family history
  • prematurity
  • abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA)
  • defective transversalis fascia
  • chronic bronchitis or emphysema
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
  • lathyrism
  • smoking
  • heavy lifting
  • pregnancy
  • ascites
  • prostatectomy
  • appendectomy
  • benign prostatic hypertrophy
  • urethral stricture

Diagnostic investigations

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Richard Burney, MD

Professor Emeritus of Surgery

Section of General Surgery

University of Michigan

Ann Arbor

MI

Disclosures

RB declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Richard Burney would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr LS Wong and Dr EA Agaba, the previous contributors to this monograph. LSW and EAA declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Mark Carlson, MD, FACS

Department of Surgery

University of Nebraska Medical Center

Omaha

NE

Disclosures

MC declares that he has no competing interests.

Patrick J. O'Dwyer, MBChB BAO, FRCS, MCh

Professor of Gastrointestinal Surgery

University Department of Surgery

Western Infirmary

Glasgow

UK

Disclosures

PJOD declares that he has no competing interests.

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