Dizziness is a non-specific term and may be used by patients to indicate true vertigo, lightheadedness, imbalance, or a form of syncope. The prevalence of dizziness in the general population ranges from 15% to 30%. True vertigo is described as a rotary sensation of the patient or surroundings, and is often of vestibular origin.
The aetiology varies from vestibular to neurological to cardiovascular pathology. The most common causes of vertigo are migraine-related vertigo, benign positional paroxysmal vertigo, and Meniere's disease. Cerebellar infarct or vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) may also cause dizziness.
- Superior semi-circular canal dehiscence
- Perilymphatic fistula
- Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD)
- Mondini's dysplasia
- Posterior fossa tumour
- Multiple sclerosis
- Cerebellar stroke
- Vertebrobasilar insufficiency
- Chiari malformation type 1
- Wallenberg syndrome
- Cervical artery dissection
- Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration
- Hereditary ataxia
- Benign intracranial hypertension
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus
- Mal de debarquement syndrome
- Psychophysiological dizziness
- Psychogenic dizziness
- Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
- Cogan syndrome
- Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis)
- Behcet's disease
- Carbon monoxide poisoning
- Lyme disease
- Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
- Herpes simplex infection (HSV-1)
Consultant Otolaryngologist and Otologist
Rotherham NHS Foundation Trust
SAD declares that she has no competing interests.
Professor of ENT
Sydney Cochlear Implant Centre
WG is a co-author of one reference cited in this topic.
Professor and Vice Chairman
Residency Program Director
Dizziness and Balance Center Director
Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Washington University School of Medicine
JG is an author of a number of references cited in this topic.
Senior Lecturer in Otolaryngology
Honorary Consultant Otolaryngologist
Glasgow Royal Infirmary
IS declares that he has no competing interests.
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