Last reviewed: 5 Jul 2021
Last updated: 23 Feb 2021

Summary

Differentials

Common

  • Toddler's fracture (spiral non-displaced fracture of tibia with fibula intact)
  • Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
  • Child abuse
  • Osgood-Schlatter disease
  • Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)
  • Cerebral palsy
  • Spina bifida
  • Appendicitis

Uncommon

  • Slipped capital femoral epiphysis
  • Development hip dysplasia
  • Tarsal coalition
  • Sever's disease
  • Spondylolysis
  • Juvenile dermatomyositis
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
  • Septic arthritis
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT)
  • Muscular dystrophies
  • Haemophilia
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Leukaemia
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Benign bone tumour
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Ewing's sarcoma
  • Rickets
  • Lysosomal storage disorders
  • Complex regional pain syndrome

Contributors

Authors

Helen Foster, MBBS (Hons), MD, FRCPCH, FRCP, Cert Med Ed

Professor of Paediatric Rheumatology

Newcastle University

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

HF has received unrestricted educational research grants from Pfizer, BioMarin, Sobi, and Genzyme to develop educational materials. HF has also received honoraria (e.g., for chairing of workshops at conferences) and served on advisory boards for Genzyme, BioMarin, and Pfizer; she has given any proceeds from this work to Newcastle University, UK to support her research activities.

Paula Drummond, MBChB, DCH, MRCP (UK), MRCPCH

Consultant Paediatrician

Newcastle Hospitals NHS Trust

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

PD declares that she has no competing interests.

Sharmila Jandial, MBChB, MRCPCH, Cert Med Ed

Clinical Educational Research Fellow

Newcastle University

Newcastle upon Tyne

UK

Disclosures

SJ declares that she has no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Jacqui Clinch, MB BS

Consultant Paediatric Rheumatologist

Bristol Royal Hospital for Children

Bristol

UK

Disclosures

JC declares that she has no competing interests.

Mark Wood, MB BS

Consultant Paediatric and Adolescent Rheumatologist

Leeds General Infirmary

Leeds

UK

Disclosures

MW declares that he has no competing interests.

Sherilyn Driscoll, MD

Consultant

Assistant Professor

Mayo Medical School

Program Director

Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine

Mayo Clinic

Rochester

MN

Disclosures

SD declares that she has no competing interests.

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