Placenta praevia

References

Key articles

Jain V, Bos H, Bujold E; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Guideline no. 402: diagnosis and management of placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2020 Jul;42(7):906-17.e1. Abstract

Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Placenta praevia and placenta accreta: diagnosis and management. Green-top guideline no. 27a. Sep 2018 [internet publication].Full text

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists / Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. ACOG SMFM obstetric care consensus #7: placenta accreta spectrum. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Shipp TD, Poder L, Feldstein VA, et al; Expert Panel on GYN and OB Imaging, American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: second and third trimester vaginal bleeding. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov;17(11s):S497-504.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Jain V, Bos H, Bujold E; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Guideline no. 402: diagnosis and management of placenta previa. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2020 Jul;42(7):906-17.e1. Abstract

2. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Placenta praevia and placenta accreta: diagnosis and management. Green-top guideline no. 27a. Sep 2018 [internet publication].Full text

3. Reddy UM, Abuhamad AZ, Levine D, et al. Fetal imaging: executive summary of a joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Radiology, Society for Pediatric Radiology, and Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound Fetal Imaging Workshop. J Ultrasound Med. 2014 May;33(5):745-57. Abstract

4. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists / Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. ACOG SMFM obstetric care consensus #7: placenta accreta spectrum. Dec 2018 [internet publication].Full text

5. Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine. SMFM consult series #44: management of bleeding in the late preterm period. Oct 2017 [internet publication].Full text

6. Getahun D, Oyelese Y, Salihu HM, et al. Previous cesarean delivery and risks of placenta previa and placental abruption. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4):771-8. Abstract

7. Loto O, Onile TG. Placenta praevia at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife. A ten year analysis. Niger J Clin Pract. 2008 Jun;11(2):130-3. Abstract

8. Yang Q, Wu Wen S, Caughey S, et al. Placenta previa: its relationship with race and the country of origin among Asian women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2008;87(6):612-6. Abstract

9. Odibo AO, Cahill AG, Stamilio DM, et al. Predicting placental abruption and previa in women with a previous cesarean delivery. Am J Perinatol. 2007 May;24(5):299-305. Abstract

10. Qublan HS, Tahat Y. Multiple cesarean section. The impact on maternal and fetal outcome. Saudi Med J. 2006 Feb;27(2):210-4. Abstract

11. Lynch CM, Kearney R, Turner MJ. Maternal morbidity after elective repeat cesarean section after two or more previous procedures. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2003 Jan 10;106(1):10-3. Abstract

12. Cleary-Goldman J, Malone FD, Vidaver J, et al; FASTER Consortium. Impact of maternal age on obstetric outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;105(5 Pt 1):983-90. Abstract

13. Ananth CV, Demissie K, Smulian JC, et al. Placenta previa in singleton and twin births in the United States, 1989 through 1998: a comparison of risk factor profiles and associated conditions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jan;188(1):275-81. Abstract

14. Mortensen JT, Thulstrup AM, Larsen H, et al. Smoking, sex of the offspring, and risk of placental abruption, placenta previa, and preeclampsia: a population-based cohort study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001 Oct;80(10):894-8.Full text  Abstract

15. Oyelese Y, Smulian JC. Placenta previa, placenta accreta, and vasa previa. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4):927-41. Abstract

16. Montan S. Increased risk in the elderly parturient. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;19(2):110-2. Abstract

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20. Francois K, Johnson JM, Harris C. Is placenta previa more common in multiple gestations? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May;188(5):1226-7. Abstract

21. Castles A, Adams EK, Melvin CL, et al. Effects of smoking during pregnancy. Five meta-analyses. Am J Prev Med. 1999 Apr;16(3):208-15. Abstract

22. Kashanian M, Akbarian AR, Baradaran H, et al. Pregnancy outcome following a previous spontaneous abortion (miscarriage). Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006;61(3):167-70. Abstract

23. Sheiner E, Levy A, Katz M, et al. Pregnancy outcome following recurrent spontaneous abortions. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Jan 10;118(1):61-5. Abstract

24. Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard JU. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 May;192(5):1458-61. Abstract

25. Zhou W, Nielsen GL, Larsen H, et al. Induced abortion and placenta complications in the subsequent pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2001 Dec;80(12):1115-20. Abstract

26. Papinniemi M, Keski-Nisula L, Heinonen S. Placental ratio and risk of velamentous umbilical cord insertion are increased in women with placenta previa. Am J Perinatol. 2007 Jun;24(6):353-7. Abstract

27. Shukunami K, Tsunezawa W, Hosokawa K, et al. Placenta previa of a succenturiate lobe: a report of two cases. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001 Dec 1;99(2):276-7. Abstract

28. Conde-Agudelo A, Rosas-Bermudez A, Kafury-Goeta AC. Effects of birth spacing on maternal health: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;196(4):297-308. Abstract

29. Kistin N, Handler A, Davis F, et al. Cocaine and cigarettes: a comparison of risks. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1996 Jul;10(3):269-78. Abstract

30. Thomson F, Shanbhag S, Templeton A, et al. Obstetric outcome in women with subfertility. BJOG. 2005 May;112(5):632-7. Abstract

31. Kallen B, Finnstrom O, Nygren KG, et al. In vitro fertilisation in Sweden: obstetric characteristics, maternal morbidity and mortality. BJOG. 2005 Nov;112(11):1529-35. Abstract

32. Shevell T, Malone FD, Vidaver J, et al. Assisted reproductive technology and pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Nov;106(5 Pt 1):1039-45. Abstract

33. Reddy UM, Wapner RJ, Rebar RW, et al. Infertility, assisted reproductive technology, and adverse pregnancy outcomes: executive summary of a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):967-77. Abstract

34. Mukhopadhaya N, Arulkumaran S. Reproductive outcomes after in-vitro fertilization. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;19(2):113-9. Abstract

35. Romundstad LB, Romundstad PR, Sunde A, et al. Increased risk of placenta previa in pregnancies following IVF/ICSI; a comparison of ART and non-ART pregnancies in the same mother. Hum Reprod. 2006 Sep;21(9):2353-8.Full text  Abstract

36. Dashe JS, McIntire DD, Ramus RM, et al. Persistence of placenta previa according to gestational age at ultrasound detection. Obstet Gynecol. 2002 May;99(5 Pt 1):692-7. Abstract

37. Shipp TD, Poder L, Feldstein VA, et al; Expert Panel on GYN and OB Imaging, American College of Radiology. ACR appropriateness criteria: second and third trimester vaginal bleeding. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov;17(11s):S497-504.Full text  Abstract

38. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 175: ultrasound in pregnancy. Dec 2016 [internet publication]. Abstract

39. Neilson JP. Interventions for suspected placenta praevia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD001998.Full text  Abstract

40. Vladareanu R, Onofriescu M, Mihailescu D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging in obstetrics. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2006 Jul-Sep;110(3):567-74. Abstract

41. Abramowicz JS, Sheiner E. In utero imaging of the placenta: importance for diseases of pregnancy. Placenta. 2007 Apr;28(suppl A):S14-22. Abstract

42. Palacios Jaraquemada JM, Bruno CH. Magnetic resonance imaging in 300 cases of placenta accreta: surgical correlation of new findings. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Aug;84(8):716-24.Full text  Abstract

43. Chilaka VN, Konje JC, Clarke S, et al. Practice observed: is speculum examination on admission a necessary procedure in the management of all cases of antepartum haemorrhage? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Jul;20(4):396-8. Abstract

44. Sakornbut E, Leeman L, Fontaine P. Late pregnancy bleeding. Am Fam Physician. 2007 Apr 15;75(8):1199-206.Full text  Abstract

45. Magann EF, Cummings JE, Niederhauser A, et al. Antepartum bleeding of unknown origin in the second half of pregnancy: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2005 Nov;60(11):741-5. Abstract

46. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 181: prevention of Rh D alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;130(2):e57-70.Full text  Abstract

47. Gagnon A, Wilson RD, Audibert F, et al; Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada Genetics Committee. Obstetrical complications associated with abnormal maternal serum markers analytes. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2008 Oct;30(10):918-32. Abstract

48. Bhide A, Prefumo F, Moore J, et al. Placental edge to internal os distance in the late third trimester and mode of delivery in placenta praevia. BJOG. 2003 Sep;110(9):860-4. Abstract

49. Oppenheimer L, Holmes P, Simpson N, et al. Diagnosis of low-lying placenta: can migration in the third trimester predict outcome? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Aug;18(2):100-2. Abstract

50. Predanic M, Perni SC, Baergen RN, et al. A sonographic assessment of different patterns of placenta previa "migration" in the third trimester of pregnancy. J Ultrasound Med. 2005 Jun;24(6):773-80. Abstract

51. Olive EC, Roberts CL, Nassar N, et al. Test characteristics of placental location screening by transabdominal ultrasound at 18-20 weeks. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Dec;28(7):944-9. Abstract

52. Comstock CH, Love JJ, Bronsteen RA, et al. Sonographic detection of placenta accreta in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;190(4):1135-40. Abstract

53. Adeyomoye AA, Ola ER, Arogundade RA, et al. Comparison of the accuracy of trans-abdominal sonography (TAS) and transperineal sonography (TPS) in the diagnosis of placenta praevia. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2006 Mar;13(1):21-5. Abstract

54. Garcia-Bournissen F, Shrim A, Koren G. Safety of gadolinium during pregnancy. Can Fam Physician. 2006 Mar;52:309-10.Full text  Abstract

55. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG practice bulletin no. 192: management of alloimmunization during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Mar;131(3):e82-90. Abstract

56. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis for women who are rhesus D negative. Aug 2008 [internet publication].Full text

57. Qureshi H, Massey E, Kirwan D, et al; British Society for Haematology. BCSH guideline for the use of anti-D immunoglobulin for the prevention of haemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Transfus Med. 2014 Feb;24(1):8-20.Full text  Abstract

58. Fan D, Wu S, Liu L, et al. Prevalence of antepartum hemorrhage in women with placenta previa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2017 Jan 9;7:40320.Full text  Abstract

59. Bhide A, Thilaganathan B. Recent advances in the management of placenta previa. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Dec;16(6):447-51. Abstract

60. Gayet-Ageron A, Prieto-Merino D, Ker K, et al. Effect of treatment delay on the effectiveness and safety of antifibrinolytics in acute severe haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data from 40 138 bleeding patients. Lancet. 2018 Jan 13;391(10116):125-32.Full text  Abstract

61. Love CD, Fernando KJ, Sargent L, et al. Major placenta praevia should not preclude out-patient management. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004 Nov 10;117(1):24-9. Abstract

62. McGoldrick E, Stewart F, Parker R, et al. Antenatal corticosteroids for accelerating fetal lung maturation for women at risk of preterm birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Dec 25;(12):CD004454.Full text  Abstract

63. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Committee on Obstetric Practice. Committee opinion no. 713: antenatal corticosteroid therapy for fetal maturation. Aug 2017 (reaffirmed 2020) [internet publication].Full text

64. Crowther CA, McKinlay CJ, Middleton P, et al. Repeat doses of prenatal corticosteroids for women at risk of preterm birth for improving neonatal health outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 5;(7):CD003935.Full text  Abstract

65. Bose DA, Assel BG, Hill JB, et al. Maintenance tocolytics for preterm symptomatic placenta previa: a review. Am J Perinatol. 2011 Jan;28(1):45-50. Abstract

66. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics. Practice bulletin no. 171: management of preterm labor. Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Oct;128(4):e155-64.Full text  Abstract

67. Neilson JP, West HM, Dowswell T. Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Feb 5;(2):CD004352.Full text  Abstract

68. European Medicines Agency. Restrictions on use of short-acting beta-agonists in obstetric indications - CMDh endorses PRAC recommendations. Oct 2013 [internet publication].Full text

69. Flenady V, Wojcieszek AM, Papatsonis DN, et al. Calcium channel blockers for inhibiting preterm labour and birth. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Jun 5;(6):CD002255.Full text  Abstract

70. Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, et al. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;(1):CD004661.Full text  Abstract

71. US Food and Drug Administration: drug safety communication. FDA recommends against prolonged use of magnesium sulfate to stop pre-term labor due to bone changes in exposed babies. May 2013 [internet publication].Full text

72. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Magnesium sulfate: risk of skeletal adverse effects in the neonate following prolonged or repeated use in pregnancy. May 2019 [internet publication].Full text

73. Becker RH, Vonk R, Mende BC, et al. The relevance of placental location at 20-23 gestational weeks for prediction of placenta previa at delivery: evaluation of 8650 cases. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Jun;17(6):496-501.Full text  Abstract

74. Bergholt T, Stenderup JK, Vedsted-Jakobsen A, et al. Intraoperative surgical complication during cesarean section: an observational study of the incidence and risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2003 Mar;82(3):251-6.Full text  Abstract

75. Magan EF, Evans S, Hutchinson M, et al. Postpartum hemorrhage after cesarean delivery: an analysis of risk factors. South Med J. 2005 Jul;98(7):681-5. Abstract

76. Watanasomsiri N, Rungruxsrivorn T, Chaithongwongwatthana S. Risk factors for cesarean hysterectomy in cesarean delivery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006 Oct;89 Suppl 4:S100-4. Abstract

77. Daskalakis G, Anastasakis E, Papantoniou, et al. Emergency obstetric hysterectomy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2007 Feb;86(2):223-7.Full text  Abstract

78. Yang Q, Wen SW, Oppenheimer L, et al. Association of caesarean delivery for first birth with placenta praevia and placental abruption in second pregnancy. BJOG. 2007 May;114(5):609-13. Abstract

79. Kennare, R, Tucker G, Heard A, et al. Risks of adverse outcomes in the next birth after a first cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Feb;109(2 Pt 1):270-6. Abstract

80. Koifman A, Levy A, Zaulan Y, et al. The clinical significance of bleeding during the second trimester of pregnancy. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008 Jul;278(1):47-51. Abstract

81. Ananth CV, Demissie K, Smulian JC, et al. Relationship among placenta previa, fetal growth restriction, and preterm delivery: a population-based study. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Aug;98(2):299-306. Abstract

82. Ananth CV, Smulian JC, Vintzileos AM. The effect of placenta previa on neonatal mortality: a population-based study in the United States, 1989 through 1997. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May;188(5):1299-304. Abstract

83. Salihu HM, Li QL, Rouse DJ, et al. Placenta previa: neonatal death after live births in the United States. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 May;188(5):1305-9. Abstract

84. Lal AK, Hibbard JU. Placenta previa: an outcome-based cohort study in a contemporary obstetric population. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2015 Aug;292(2):299-305. Abstract

85. Li DK, Wi S. Maternal placental abnormality and the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Am J Epidemiol. 1999 Apr 1;149(7):608-11.Full text  Abstract

86. Rossi AC, Lee RH, Chmait RH. Emergency postpartum hysterectomy for uncontrolled postpartum bleeding: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Mar;115(3):637-44. Abstract

87. Machado LS. Emergency peripartum hysterectomy: incidence, indications, risk factors and outcome. N Am J Med Sci. 2011 Aug;3(8):358-61.Full text  Abstract

88. Silver RM, Landon MB, Rouse DJ, et al. Maternal morbidity associated with multiple repeat cesarean deliveries. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;107(6):1226-32. Abstract

89. Tanimura K, Yamasaki Y, Ebina Y, et al. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2015 Apr;187:41-4. Abstract

90. Shainker SA, Coleman B, Timor-Tritsch IE, et al. Special report of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine Placenta Accreta Spectrum Ultrasound Marker Task Force: consensus on definition of markers and approach to the ultrasound examination in pregnancies at risk for placenta accreta spectrum. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021 Jan;224(1):B2-14.Full text  Abstract

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