Miscarriage

References

Key articles

World Health Organization, UNICEF, United Nations Population Fund. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. In: Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors - 2nd edition. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: early pregnancy loss. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

Kim C, Barnard S, Neilson JP, et al. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 31;(1):CD007223.Full text  Abstract

Tunçalp O, Gülmezoglu AM, Souza JP. Surgical procedures for evacuating incomplete miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 8;(9):CD001993.Full text  Abstract

European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. Guideline on the management of recurrent pregnancy loss. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Duckitt K, Qureshi A. Recurrent miscarriage. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015 [internet publication].

Reference articles

1. World Health Organization, UNICEF, United Nations Population Fund. Vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy. In: Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors - 2nd edition. 2017 [internet publication].Full text

2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. What is stillbirth? Nov 2020 [internet publication].Full text

3. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. The investigation and treatment of couples with recurrent miscarriage Green-top guideline no. 17. Apr 2011 [internet publication].Full text

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5. Association of Early Pregnancy Units. AEPU organisational, clinical and supportive guidelines. 2007 [internet publication].Full text

6. Makrydimas G, Sebire NJ, Lolis D, et al. Fetal loss following ultrasound diagnosis of a live fetus at 6-10 weeks of gestation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct;22(4):368-72.Full text  Abstract

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8. Regan L, Rai R. Epidemiology and the medical causes of miscarriage. Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2000 Oct;14(5):839-54. Abstract

9. Moore J, Shillito TJ, Walker JJ. Current issues in management of miscarriage and early pregnancy bleeding. Hosp Med. 2002 Mar;63(3):134-5. Abstract

10. Farr SL, Schieve LA, Jamieson DJ. Pregnancy loss among pregnancies conceived through assisted reproductive technology, United States, 1999-2002. Am J Epidemiol. 2007 Jun 15;165(12):1380-8. Abstract

11. Wilcox AJ, Weinberg CR, O'Connor JF, et al. Incidence of early loss of pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 1988 Jul 28;319(4):189-94. Abstract

12. Wang X, Chen C, Wang L, et al. Conception, early pregnancy loss, and time to clinical pregnancy: a population-based prospective study. Fertil Steril. 2003 Mar;79(3):577-84.Full text  Abstract

13. Wyatt PR, Owolabi T, Meier C, et al. Age-specific risk of fetal loss observed in a second trimester serum screening population. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jan;192(1):240-6.Full text  Abstract

14. Ventura SJ, Abma JC, Mosher WD, et al. Estimated pregnancy rates for the United States, 1990-2000: an update. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2004 Jun 15;52(23):1-9. Abstract

15. Blohm F, Friden B, Milsom I. A prospective longitudinal population-based study of clinical miscarriage in an urban Swedish population. BJOG. 2008 Jan;115(2):176-82;discussion 183.Full text  Abstract

16. Stirrat GM. Recurrent miscarriage. Lancet. 1990 Sep 15;336(8716):673-5.Full text  Abstract

17. Vitzthum VJ, Spielvogel H, Thornburg J. A prospective study of early pregnancy loss in humans. Fertil Steril. 2006 Aug;86(2):373-9.Full text  Abstract

18. Morales C, Sanchez A, Bruquera J, et al. Cytogenetic studies of spontaneous abortions using semi-direct analysis of chorionic villi samples detects the broadest spectrum of chromosome abnormalities. Am J Med Genet A. 2008 Jan 1;146A(1):66-70. Abstract

19. Vidal F, Rubio C, Simon C, et al. Is there a place for preimplantation genetic diagnosis screening in recurrent miscarriage patients? J Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2000;55:143-6. Abstract

20. Sullivan AE, Lewis T, Stephenson M, et al. Pregnancy outcome in recurrent miscarriage patients with skewed X chromosome inactivation. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jun;101(6):1236-42. Abstract

21. Pasquier E, Bohec C, De Saint Martin L, et al. Strong evidence that skewed X-chromosome inactivation is not associated with recurrent pregnancy loss: an incident paired case-control study. Hum Reprod. 2007 Nov;22(11):2829-33. Abstract

22. Miskovic S, Culic V, Konjevoda P, et al. Positive reproductive family history for spontaneous abortion: predictor for recurrent miscarriage in young couples. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2012 Apr;161(2):182-6. Abstract

23. Ugwumadu A . Chorioamnionitis and mid-trimester pregnancy loss. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2010;70(4):281-5. Abstract

24. Leitich H, Kiss H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Jun;21(3):375-90. Abstract

25. Nelson DB, Bellamy S, Nachamkin I, et al. First trimester bacterial vaginosis, individual microorganism levels and risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women. Fertil Steril. 2007 Nov;88(5):1396-403.Full text  Abstract

26. Empson M, Lassere M, Craig J, et al. Prevention of recurrent miscarriage for women with antiphospholipid antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD002859.Full text  Abstract

27. Ernst E. Herbal medicinal products during pregnancy: are they safe? BJOG. 2002 Mar;109(3):227-35.Full text  Abstract

28. Akolekar R, Bower S, Flack N, et al. Prediction of miscarriage and stillbirth at 11-13 weeks and the contribution of chorionic villus sampling. Prenat Diagn. 2011 Jan;31(1):38-45.Full text  Abstract

29. Vailhe B, Dietl J, Kapp M, et al. Increased blood vessel density in decidua parietalis is associated with spontaneous human first trimester abortion. Hum Reprod. 1999 Jun;14(6):1628-34. Abstract

30. Sherer DM, Abulafia O. Angiogenesis during implantation and placental and early embryonic development. Placenta. 2001 Jan;22(1):1-13. Abstract

31. Kwak-Kim JY, Chung-Bang HS, Ng SC, et al. Increased T helper 1 cytokine responses by circulating T cells are present in women with recurrent pregnancy losses, and infertile women with multiple implantation failure after IVF. Hum Reprod. 2003 Apr;18(4):767-73. Abstract

32. King K, Smith S, Chapman M, et al. Detailed analysis of peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cells in women with recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2010 Jan;25(1):52-8.Full text  Abstract

33. Teklenburg G, Salker M, Heijnen C, et al. The molecular basis of recurrent pregnancy loss: impaired natural embryo selection. Mol Hum Reprod. 2010 Dec;16(12):886-95.Full text  Abstract

34. Nybo Andersen AM, Wohlfahrt J, Christens P, et al. Maternal age and fetal loss: population based register linkage study. BMJ. 2000 Jun 24;320(7251):1708-12.Full text  Abstract

35. de la Rochebrochard E, Thonneau P. Paternal age and maternal age are risk factors for miscarriage: results of a multicentre European study. Hum Reprod. 2002 Jun;17(6):1649-56. Abstract

36. ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Genetic aspects of female reproduction. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Jul-Aug;14(4):293-307. Abstract

37. Garcia-Enguidanos A, Calle ME, Valero J, et al. Risk factors in miscarriage: a review. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2002 May 10;102(2):111-9. Abstract

38. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Removal of myomas in asymptomatic patients to improve fertility and/or reduce miscarriage rate: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2017 Sep;108(3):416-25.Full text  Abstract

39. Leitich H, Kiss H. Asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis and intermediate flora as risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcome. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Jun;21(3):375-90. Abstract

40. Nelson DB, Bellamy S, Nachamkin I, et al. First trimester bacterial vaginosis, individual microorganism levels and risk of second trimester pregnancy loss among urban women. Fertil Steril. 2007 Nov;88(5):1396-403.Full text  Abstract

41. Nelen WL, Blom HJ, Steegers EA, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia and recurrent early pregnancy loss: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2000 Dec;74(6):1196-9.Full text  Abstract

42. Empson M, Lassere M, Craig J, et al. Prevention of recurrent miscarriage for women with antiphospholipid antibody or lupus anticoagulant. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Apr 18;(2):CD002859.Full text  Abstract

43. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Recurrent miscarriage, investigation and treatment of couples. Green-top guideline no. 17. Apr 2011 [internet publication].Full text

44. Zhang H, Huang Z, Xiao L, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect of the maternal vitamin D level on the risk of spontaneous pregnancy loss. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2017 Sep;138(3):242-9. Abstract

45. Sun Y, Che Y, Gao E, et al. Induced abortion and risk of subsequent miscarriage. Int J Epidemiol. 2003 Jun;32(3):449-54. Abstract

46. Virk J, Zhang J, Olsen J. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2007 Aug 16;357(7):648-53.Full text  Abstract

47. Gray RH, Wu LY. Subfertility and risk of spontaneous abortion. Am J Public Health. 2000 Sep;90(9):1452-4.Full text  Abstract

48. Axmon A, Hagmar L. Time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome. Fertil Steril. 2005 Oct;84(4):966-74.Full text  Abstract

49. Shi Q, Martin RH. Aneuploidy in human spermatozoa: FISH analysis in men with constitutional chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men. Reproduction. 2001 May;121(5):655-66.Full text  Abstract

50. Li DK, Ferber JR, Odouli R, et al. Use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2018 Sep;219(3):275.e1-275.e8. Abstract

51. Nielsen GL, Skriver MV, Pedersen L, et al. Danish group reanalyses miscarriage in NSAID users. BMJ. 2004 Jan 10;328(7431):109.Full text  Abstract

52. Li DK, Liu L, Odouli R. Exposure to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2003 Aug 16;327(7411):368.Full text  Abstract

53. Anderson BL, Juliano LM, Schulkin J. Caffeine's implications for women’s health and survey of obstetrician-gynecologists’ caffeine knowledge and assessment practices. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Sep;18(9):1457-66. Abstract

54. Chen LW, Wu Y, Neelakantan N, et al. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy and risk of pregnancy loss: a categorical and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. Public Health Nutr. 2016 May;19(7):1233-44.Full text  Abstract

55. Henderson J, Gray R, Brocklehurst P. Systematic review of effects of low moderate alcohol exposure in pregnancy outcome. BJOG. 2007 Mar;114(3):243-52.Full text  Abstract

56. Tolstrup JS, Kjaer SK, Munk C, et al. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion? Hum Reprod. 2003 Dec;18(12):2704-10. Abstract

57. Nielsen A, Hannibal CG, Lindekilde BE, et al. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(9):1057-65. Abstract

58. Venners SA, Wang X, Chen C, et al. Paternal smoking and pregnancy loss: a prospective study using a biomarker of pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2004 May 15;159(10):993-1001. Abstract

59. Lashen H, Fear K, Sturdee DW. Obesity is associated with increased risk of first trimester and recurrent miscarriage: matched case-control study. Hum Reprod. 2004 Jul;19(7):1644-6. Abstract

60. De Groot L, Abalovich M, Alexander EK, et al. Management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy and postpartum: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Aug;97(8):2543-65.Full text  Abstract

61. Lepoutre T, Debiève F, Gruson D, et al. Reduction of miscarriages through universal screening and treatment of thyroid autoimmune diseases. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2012;74(4):265-73.Full text  Abstract

62. Agnesi R, Valentini F, Fedeli U, et al. Maternal exposures and risk of spontaneous abortion before and after a community oriented health education campaign. Eur J Public Health. 2011;21:282-285.Full text  Abstract

63. Balogun OO, da Silva Lopes K, Ota E, et al. Vitamin supplementation for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(5):CD004073.Full text  Abstract

64. Aleman A, Althabe F, Belizán JM, et al. Bed rest during pregnancy for preventing miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;(2):CD003576. Abstract

65. Mattox KL, Goetzl L. Trauma in pregnancy. Crit Care Med. 2005 Oct;33(suppl 10):S385-9. Abstract

66. Hoey R, Allan K. Does speculum examination have a role in assessing bleeding in early pregnancy? Emerg Med J. 2004 Jul;21(4):461-3.Full text  Abstract

67. Condous G, Okaro E, Bourne T. The conservative management of early pregnancy complications: a review of the literature. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct;22(4):420-30.Full text  Abstract

68. Barnhart KT, Simhan H, Kamelle SA. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound above and below the beta-hCG discriminatory zone. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Oct;94(4):583-7. Abstract

69. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage: diagnosis and initial management. Nov 2021 [internet publication].Full text

70. Bourne T, Bottomley C. When is a pregnancy nonviable and what criteria should be used to define miscarriage? Fertil Steril. 2012 Nov;98(5):1091-6.Full text  Abstract

71. Preisler J, Kopeika J, Ismail L, et al. Defining safe criteria to diagnose miscarriage: prospective observational multicentre study. BMJ. 2015 Sep 23;351:h4579.Full text  Abstract

72. Duan L, Yan D, Zeng W, et al. Predictive power progesterone combined with beta human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in the outcome of threatened miscarriage. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2011 Mar;283(3):431-5. Abstract

73. Verhaegen J, Gallos ID, van Mello NM, et al. Accuracy of single progesterone test to predict early pregnancy outcome in women with pain or bleeding: meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMJ. 2012 Sep 27;345:e6077.Full text  Abstract

74. Bottomley C, Van Belle V, Kirk E, et al. Accurate prediction of pregnancy viability by means of a simple scoring system. Hum Reprod. 2013 Jan;28(1):68-76. Abstract

75. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Evaluation and treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2012 Nov;98(5):1103-11.Full text  Abstract

76. Dhillon RK, Hillman SC, Morris RK, et al. Additional information from chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) over conventional karyotyping when diagnosing chromosomal abnormalities in miscarriage: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BJOG. 2014 Jan;121(1):11-21.Full text  Abstract

77. Yang J, Savitz DA, Dole N, et al. Predictors of vaginal bleeding during the first two trimesters of pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2005 Jul;19(4):276-83. Abstract

78. Gracia CR, Sammel MD, Chittams J, et al. Risk factors for spontaneous abortion in early symptomatic first-trimester pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Nov;106(5 Pt 1):993-9. Abstract

79. Maconochie N, Doyle P, Prior S, et al. Risk factors for first trimester miscarriage-results from a UK-population-based case-control study. BCOJ. 2007 Feb;114(2):170-86. Abstract

80. Ouyang DW, Economy KE, Norwitz ER. Obstetric complication of fibroids. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am. 2006 Mar;33(1):153-69. Abstract

81. Sagili H, Mohamed K. Pregnancy of unknown location: an evidence-based approach to management. Obstet Gynaecol. 2008;10:224-30.Full text

82. Farquharson RG, Jauniaux E, Exalto N; ESHRE Special Interest Group for Early Pregnancy (SIGEP). Updated and revised nomenclature for description of early pregnancy events. Hum Reprod. 2005 Nov;20(11):3008-11. Abstract

83. Chittacharoen A, Herabutya Y. Slow fetal heart rate may predict pregnancy outcome in first trimester threatened abortion. Fertil Steril. 2004 Jul;82(1):227-9.Full text  Abstract

84. Noble G, Harvey C, Napier C, et al. Preimplantation genetic screening in advanced maternal age: a systematic review. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol. 2010;5:707-716.

85. Papaioannou GI, Syngelaki A, Maiz N, et al. Ultrasonographic prediction of early miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 2011;26:1685-1692.Full text  Abstract

86. Edey K, Draycott T, Akande VA. Early pregnancy assessment units. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar;50(1):146-53. Abstract

87. Saraswat L, Bhattacharya S, Maheshwari A, et al. Maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened miscarriage in the first trimester: a systematic review. BJOG. 2010 Feb;117(3):245-57.Full text  Abstract

88. Coomarasamy A, Devall AJ, Cheed V, et al. A randomized trial of progesterone in women with bleeding in early pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2019 May 9;380(19):1815-24.Full text  Abstract

89. Devall AJ, Papadopoulou A, Podesek M, et al. Progestogens for preventing miscarriage: a network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Apr 19;4:CD013792.Full text  Abstract

90. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin: early pregnancy loss. Nov 2018 [internet publication].Full text

91. Kim C, Barnard S, Neilson JP, et al. Medical treatments for incomplete miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 31;(1):CD007223.Full text  Abstract

92. Luise C, Jermy K, May C, et al. Outcome of expectant management of spontaneous first trimester miscarriage: observational study. BMJ. 2002 Apr 13;324(7342):873-5.Full text  Abstract

93. Shelley JM, Healy D, Grover S. A randomized trial of surgical, medical and expectant management of first trimester miscarriage. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Apr;45(2):122-7. Abstract

94. Rulin MC, Bornstein SG, Campbell JD. The reliability of ultrasonography in the management of spontaneous abortion, clinically thought to be complete: a prospective study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993 Jan;168(1 Pt 1):12-5. Abstract

95. Ballagh SA, Harris HA, Demasio K. Is curettage needed for uncomplicated incomplete spontaneous abortion? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1998 Nov;179(5):1279-82. Abstract

96. Sawyer E, Ofuasia E, Ofili-Yebovi D, et al. The value of measuring endometrial thickness and volume on transvaginal ultrasound scan for the diagnosis of incomplete miscarriage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Feb;29(2):205-9.Full text  Abstract

97. Harwood B, Nansel T, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Management of Early Pregnancy Failure Trial. Quality of life and acceptability of medical versus surgical management of early pregnancy failure. BJOG. 2008 Mar;115(4):501-8.Full text  Abstract

98. Nanda K, Lopez LM, Grimes DA, et al. Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;(3):CD003518.Full text  Abstract

99. Smith LF, Ewings PD, Quinlan C. Incidence of pregnancy after expectant, medical or surgical management of spontaneous first trimester miscarriage: long-term follow-up of miscarriage treatment (MIST) randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2009 Oct 8;339:b3827.Full text  Abstract

100. Davis AR, Hendlish SK, Westhoff C, et al. Bleeding patterns after misoprostol vs surgical treatment of early pregnancy failure: results from a randomized trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jan;196(1):31;e1-7. Abstract

101. Casikar I, Bignardi T, Riemke J, et al. Expectant management of spontaneous first-trimester miscarriage: prospective validation of the '2-week rule'. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Feb;35(2):223-7.Full text  Abstract

102. Verkuyl DA, Crowther CA. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomized controlled trial. S Afr Med J. 1993 Jan;83(1):13-5. Abstract

103. Tunçalp O, Gülmezoglu AM, Souza JP. Surgical procedures for evacuating incomplete miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Sep 8;(9):CD001993.Full text  Abstract

104. Sagili H, Divers M. Modern management of miscarriage. Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;9:102-8.Full text

105. Creinin MD, Harwood B, Guido RS, et al. Endometrial thickness after misoprostol use for early pregnancy failure. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Jul;86(1):22-6.Full text  Abstract

106. Trinder J, Brocklehurst P, Porter R, et al. Management of miscarriage: expectant, medical or surgical? Results of randomized controlled trial (miscarriage treatment (MIST) trial. BMJ. 2006 May 27;332(7552):1235-40.Full text  Abstract

107. Ngoc NT, Blum J, Westheimer E, et al. Medical treatment of missed abortion using misoprostol. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Nov;87(2):138-42. Abstract

108. Schreiber CA, Creinin MD, Atrio J, et al. Mifepristone pretreatment for the medical management of early pregnancy loss. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jun 7;378(23):2161-70.Full text  Abstract

109. May W, Gülmezoglu AM, Ba-Thike K. Antibiotics for incomplete abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD001779.Full text  Abstract

110. Achilles SL, Reeves MF; Society of Family Planning. Prevention of infection after induced abortion: release date October 2010: SFP guideline 20102. Contraception. 2011 Apr;83(4):295-309.Full text  Abstract

111. Savaris RF, de Moraes GS, Cristovam RA, et al. Are antibiotics necessary after 48 hours of improvement in infected/septic abortions? A randomized controlled trial followed by a cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Apr;204(4):301.e1-5.Full text  Abstract

112. Brigham SA, Conlon C, Farquharson RG. A longitudinal study of pregnancy outcome following idiopathic recurrent miscarriage. Hum Reprod. 1999 Nov;14(11):2868-71. Abstract

113. Saravelos SH, Li TC. Unexplained recurrent miscarriage: how can we explain it? Hum Reprod. 2012 Jul;27(7):1882-6. Abstract

114. European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. Guideline on the management of recurrent pregnancy loss. Nov 2017 [internet publication].Full text

115. Tong L, Wei X. Meta-analysis of aspirin-heparin therapy for un-explained recurrent miscarriage. Chin Med Sci J. 2016 Nov 20;31(4):239-46. Abstract

116. Kaandorp SP, Goddijn M, van der Post JA, et al. Aspirin plus heparin or aspirin alone in women with recurrent miscarriage. N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 29;362(17):1586-96.Full text  Abstract

117. Greer IA. Antithrombotic therapy for recurrent miscarriage? N Engl J Med. 2010 Apr 29;362(17):1630-1. Abstract

118. Skeith L, Carrier M, Kaaja R, et al. A meta-analysis of low-molecular-weight heparin to prevent pregnancy loss in women with inherited thrombophilia. Blood. 2016 Mar 31;127(13):1650-5.Full text  Abstract

119. Wong LF, Porter TF, Scott JR. Immunotherapy for recurrent miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014 Oct 21;(10):CD000112.Full text  Abstract

120. Committee on Practice Bulletins-Obstetrics. Practice bulletin no. 181: Prevention of Rh D alloimmunization. Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Aug;130(2):e57-70.Full text  Abstract

121. Swanson KM, Chen HT, Graham JC, et al. Resolution of depression and grief during the first year after miscarriage: a randomized controlled clinical trial of couples-focused interventions. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2009 Aug;18(8):1245-57.Full text  Abstract

122. Peel E. Pregnancy loss in lesbian and bisexual women: an online survey of experiences. Hum Reprod. 2010 Mar;25(3):721-7.Full text  Abstract

123. Bique C, Ustá M, Debora B, et al. Comparison of misoprostol and manual vacuum aspiration for the treatment of incomplete abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007 Sep;98(3):222-6. Abstract

124. Duckitt K, Qureshi A. Recurrent miscarriage. BMJ Clin Evid. 2015 [internet publication].

125. Tanha FD, Feizi M, Shariat M. Sublingual versus vaginal misoprostol for the management of missed abortion. J Obstet Gynaecol Res. 2010 Jun;36(3):525-32. Abstract

126. Diop A, Raghavan S, Rakotovao JP, et al. Two routes of administration for misoprostol in the treatment of incomplete abortion: a randomized clinical trial. Contraception. 2009 Jun;79(6):456-62. Abstract

127. Chen H, Fu J, Huang W. Dopamine agonists for preventing future miscarriage in women with idiopathic hyperprolactinemia and recurrent miscarriage history. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Jul 25;(7):CD008883.Full text  Abstract

128. Lykke JA, Dideriksen KL, Lidegaard O, et al. First-trimester vaginal bleeding and complications later in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 May;115(5):935-44. Abstract

129. Yael K, Lorenza P, Evelina S, et al. Incidental endometrial adenocarcinoma in early pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009 Dec;19(9):1580-4. Abstract

130. Lee C, Slade P, Lygo V. The influence of psychological debriefing on emotional adaptation in women following early miscarriage: a preliminary study. Br J Med Psychol. 1996 Mar;69(Pt 1):47-58. Abstract

131. Nikcevic AV, Kuczmierczyk AR, Nicolaides KH. The influence of medical and psychological interventions on women's distress after miscarriage. J Psychosom Res. 2007 Sep;63(3):283-90. Abstract

132. Murphy FA. The experiences of early miscarriage from a male perspective. J Clin Nurs. 1998 Jul;7(4):325-32. Abstract

133. Cumming GP, Klein S, Bolsover D, et al. The emotional burden of miscarriage for women and their partners: trajectories of anxiety and depression over 13 months. BJOG. 2007 Sep;114(9):1138-45.Full text  Abstract

134. Neugebauer R, Kline J, Shrout P, et al. Major depressive disorder in the 6 months after miscarriage. JAMA. 1997 Feb 5;277(5):383-8. Abstract

135. Lok IH, Yip AS, Lee DT, et al. A 1-year longitudinal study of psychological morbidity after miscarriage. Fertil Steril. 2010 Apr;93(6):1966-75.Full text  Abstract

136. Capella-Allouc S, Morsad F, Rongieres-Bertrand C, et al. Hysteroscopic treatment of severe Asherman’s syndrome and subsequent fertility. Hum Reprod. 1999 May;14(5):1230-3. Abstract

137. Webber K, Grivell RM. Cervical ripening before first trimester surgical evacuation for non-viable pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 10;(11):CD009954.Full text  Abstract

138. Hodgson DT, Loftipour S, Fox JC. Vaginal bleeding before 20 weeks gestation due to placental abruption leading to disseminated intravascular coagulation and fetal loss after appearing to satisfy criteria for routine threatened abortion: a case report and brief review of the literature. J Emerg Med. 2007 May;32(4):387-92.Full text  Abstract

139. Lykke JA, Dideriksen KL, Lidegaard O, et al. First-trimester vaginal bleeding and complications later in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 May;115(5):935-44. Abstract

140. Vlaanderen W, Fabriek LM, van Tuyll van Serooskerken C. Abortion risk and pregnancy interval. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1988;67(2):139-40. Abstract

141. Ali SM, Hecht BR. Attempting pregnancy after miscarriage and curettage - what is the minimum interval? Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1994 Jun;45(3):275-9. Abstract

142. Go KJ, Patel JC, Cunningham DL. The role of assisted reproductive technology in the management of recurrent pregnancy loss. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2009;16:459-463. Abstract

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