A common clinical scenario for physicians is the incidental finding of an ovarian cyst on ultrasonography performed as routine or for other indications. Whether a woman presents with an acute abdomen or without any symptoms, the ultimate goals of diagnosis are to identify a cyst, and to determine the risk of malignancy and the necessity and timing of surgical intervention. Age and menopausal status represent two critical components from the patient history that impact the diagnostic algorithm of choice. The various patient populations that present with ovarian cysts and require individualised diagnostic modalities include women with an acute abdomen or shock, post-menopausal women, pre-menopausal women, and adolescents.

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