Epidemiology

Coeliac disease is a common disorder in the US and in Europe. A relatively uniform prevalence has been found in many countries, with pooled global seroprevalence and biopsy-confirmed prevalence of 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively, according to well-designed studies.[2][3][4] However, although seroprevalence is similar globally, biopsy-confirmed coeliac disease is slightly less common in South America, the Middle East, Turkey, and sub-Saharan Africa.[2][5] Israel and India show the same seroprevalences and biopsy-confirmed rates of coeliac disease as European and North American countries.[5] With the exception of Malaysia and Vietnam, population-based studies from the far East, including China, Japan, and Southeast Asia, are lacking.[6][7] In North America, after several decades of rising prevalence, the prevalence of coeliac disease appears stable in recent years.[8]

Women are slightly more likely to be affected by coeliac disease.[2] In clinical practice they make up almost two-thirds of diagnosed patients. The incidence of refractory coeliac disease in patients with coeliac disease is not well known but may be approximately 1%. The first peak period of presentation is in infancy soon after the initial exposures to gluten, with a second, larger peak in the fourth and fifth decades. Although the most common age at diagnosis in the US is about 40 years, coeliac disease may be diagnosed at any age.[9][10]

The prevalence of asymptomatic coeliac disease is thought to account for at least 20% of patients. The incidence of refractory coeliac disease in patients with coeliac disease is approximately 1%.

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