Gingivitis

References

Key articles

Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, et al. Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S74-S84. Abstract

Neville BW, Damm D, Allen CM,et al. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015.

Holmstrup P, Plemons J, Meyle J. Non-plaque-induced gingival diseases. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S28-S45. Abstract

Farah CS, Balasumbramaniam R, McCullough MJ. Comtemporary Oral Medicine. A Comprehensive Approach to Clinical Practice. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing; 2019.

Murakami S, Mealey BL, Mariotti A, et al. Dental plaque-induced gingival conditions. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S17-S27. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Chapple ILC, Mealey BL, Van Dyke TE, et al. Periodontal health and gingival diseases and conditions on an intact and a reduced periodontium: Consensus report of workgroup 1 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S74-S84. Abstract

2. Neville BW, Damm D, Allen CM,et al. Oral and maxillofacial pathology. 4th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2015.

3. Lang NP, Lindhe J. Clinical periodontology and implant dentistry. 6th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell; 2015.

4. Holmstrup P, Plemons J, Meyle J. Non-plaque-induced gingival diseases. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S28-S45. Abstract

5. Farah CS, Balasumbramaniam R, McCullough MJ. Comtemporary Oral Medicine. A Comprehensive Approach to Clinical Practice. 1st ed. New York, NY: Springer International Publishing; 2019.

6. Albandar JM, Rams TE. Global epidemiology of periodontal diseases. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:7-10. Abstract

7. Albandar JM, Kingman A. Gingival recession, gingival bleeding and dental calculus in adults 30 years of age and older in the United States. 1988-1994. J Periodontol. 1999 Jan;70(1):30-43. Abstract

8. Hugoson A, Sjödin B, Norderyd O. Trends over 30 years, 1973-2003, in the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2008 May;35(5):405-14. Abstract

9. Rothlisberger B, Kuonen P, Salvi GE, et al. Periodontal conditions in Swiss army recruits: a comparative study between the years 1985, 1996 and 2006. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Oct;34(10):860-6. Abstract

10. Daly B, Batchelor P, Treasure ET, et al. Essential Dental Public Health. 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2013

11. Wang QT, Wu ZF, Wu YF, et al. Epidemiology and preventive direction of periodontology in China. J Clin Periodontol. 2007 Nov;34(11):946-51. Abstract

12. Dhar V, Jain A, Van Dyke TE, et al. Prevalence of gingival diseases, malocclusion and fluorosis in school-going children of rural areas in Udaipur district. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2007 Apr-Jun;25(2):103-5.Full text  Abstract

13. Agbelusi GA, Jeboda SO. Oral health status of 12-year-old Nigerian children. West Afr J Med. 2006 Jul-Sep;25(3):195-8. Abstract

14. Coelho Rde S, Gusmão ES, Jovino-Silveira RC, et al. Profile of periodontal conditions in a Brazilian adult population. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2008;6(2):139-45. Abstract

15. Trombelli L, Farina R, Silva CO, et al. Plaque-induced gingivitis: Case definition and diagnostic considerations. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S46-S73. Abstract

16. Ranganathan K, Hemalatha R. Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview. Adv Dent Res. 2006 Apr 1;19(1):63-8. Abstract

17. Albandar JM, Tinoco EM. Global epidemiology of periodontal diseases in children and young persons. Periodontol 2000. 2002;29:153-76. Abstract

18. Herrera D, Alonso B, de Arriba L, et al. Acute periodontal lesions. Periodontol 2000. 2014 Jun;65(1):149-77. Abstract

19. Herrera D, Retamal-Valdes B, Alonso B, et al. Acute periodontal lesions (periodontal abscesses and necrotizing periodontal diseases) and endo-periodontal lesions. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S85-S102. Abstract

20. Coogan MM, Greenspan J, Challacombe SJ. Oral lesions in infection with human immunodeficiency virus. Bull World Health Organ 2005 Sep;83(9):700-6.Full text  Abstract

21. Folayan MO. The epidemiology, etiology, and pathophysiology of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis associated with malnutrition. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2004 Aug 15;5(3):28-41. Abstract

22. Arendorf TM, Bredekamp B, Cloete CA, et al. Seasonal variation of acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in South Africans. Oral Dis. 2001 May;7(3):150-4. Abstract

23. Taiwo JO. Oral hygiene status and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis in Nigerian children. J Periodontol. 1993 Nov;64(11):1071-4. Abstract

24. Loe H, Theilade E, Jensen SB. Experimental gingivitis in man. J Periodontol. 1965 May-Jun;36:177-87. Abstract

25. Tanner A, Maiden MF, Macuch PJ, et al. Microbiota of health, gingivitis, and initial periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 1998 Feb;25(2):85-98. Abstract

26. Offenbacher S, Barros SP, Singer RE, et al. Periodontal disease at the biofilm-gingival interface. J Periodontol. 2007 Oct;78(10):1911-25. Abstract

27. Rüdiger SG, Carlén A, Meurman JH, et al. Dental biofilms at healthy and inflamed gingival margins. J Clin Periodontol. 2002 Jun;29(6):524-30. Abstract

28. Farina R, Guarnelli ME, Figuero E, et al. Microbiological profile and calprotectin expression in naturally occurring and experimentally induced gingivitis. Clin Oral Investig. 2011 Nov 30;16(5):1475-84. Abstract

29. Seymour GJ, Gemmell E, Walsh LJ, et al. Immunohistological analysis of experimental gingivitis in humans. Clin Exp Immunol. 1988 Jan;71(1):132-7.Full text  Abstract

30. Gemmell E, Yamazaki K, Seymour GJ. The role of T cells in periodontal disease: homeostasis and autoimmunity. Periodontol 2000. 2007 Jan 1;43(1):14-40. Abstract

31. Public Health England (PHE). Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention. 3rd ed. London: Department of Health; 2017.Full text

32. Worthington HV, MacDonald L, Poklepovic Pericic T, et al. Home use of interdental cleaning devices, in addition to toothbrushing, for preventing and controlling periodontal diseases and dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Apr 10;4:CD012018.Full text  Abstract

33. Lamont T, Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, et al. Routine scale and polish for periodontal health in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 27;12:CD004625.Full text  Abstract

34. Yaacob M, Worthington HV, Deacon SA, et al. Powered versus manual toothbrushing for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD002281.Full text  Abstract

35. Davies R, Scully C, Preston AJ. Dentifrices - an update. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2010 Nov 1;15(6):e976-82.Full text  Abstract

36. Valkenburg C, Van der Weijden FA, Slot DE. Plaque control and reduction of gingivitis: The evidence for dentifrices. Periodontol 2000. 2019 Feb;79(1):221-32. Abstract

37. Marsh PD. Controlling the oral biofilm with antimicrobials. J Dent. 2010 Jun;38(suppl 1):S11-5. Abstract

38. Armitage GC. The complete periodontal examination. Periodontol 2000. 2004 Feb;34(1):22-33. Abstract

39. Corbet EF. Diagnosis of acute periodontal lesions. Periodontol 2000. 2004 Jan;34:204-16. Abstract

40. Laskaris G, Scully C. Periodontal manifestations of local and systemic diseases. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2003.

41. Jordan RC, Daniels TE, Greenspan JS, et al. Advanced diagnostic methods in oral and maxillofacial pathology. Part II: immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent methods. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Jan;93(1):56-74. Abstract

42. Calabresi V, Carrozzo M, Cozzani E, et al. Oral pemphigoid autoantibodies preferentially target BP180 ectodomain. Clin Immunol. 2007 Feb;122(2):207-13. Abstract

43. Lo Russo L, Fedele S, Guiglia R, et al. Diagnostic pathways and clinical significance of desquamative gingivitis. J Periodontol. 2008 Jan;79(1):4-24. Abstract

44. Dongari-Bagtzoglou A; Research, Science and Therapy Committee, American Academy of Periodontology. Drug-associated gingival enlargement. J Periodontol. 2004 Oct;75(10):1424-31. Abstract

45. Larsen KR, Johansen JD, Reibel J, et al. Symptomatic oral lesions may be associated with contact allergy to substances in oral hygiene products. Clin Oral Investig. 2017 Nov;21(8):2543-2551. Abstract

46. Torgerson RR, Davis MD, Bruce AJ, et al. Contact allergy in oral disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007 Aug;57(2):315-21. Abstract

47. Leao JC, Ingafou M, Khan A, et al. Desquamative gingivitis: retrospective analysis of disease associations of a large cohort. Oral Dis. 2008 Sep;14(6):556-60. Abstract

48. Torchia D, Caproni M, Fabbri P. Linear IgA disease and desquamative gingivitis: time for inclusion in mucous membrane pemphigoid. Oral Dis. 2008 Nov;14(8):768-9. Abstract

49. Chan LS, Ahmed AR, Anhalt GJ, et al. The first international consensus on mucous membrane pemphigoid: definition, diagnostic criteria, pathogenic factors, medical treatment, and prognostic indicators. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Mar;138(3):370-9. Abstract

50. Kawakami T. New algorithm (KAWAKAMI algorithm) to diagnose primary cutaneous vasculitis. J Dermatol. 2010 Feb;37(2):113-24.Full text  Abstract

51. Wiedemeyer K, Enk A, Jappe U. Erythema multiforme following allergic contact dermatitis: case report and literature review. Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87(6):559-61. Abstract

52. Wheat LJ. Nonculture diagnostic methods for invasive fungal infections. Curr Infect Dis Rep. 2007 Nov;9(6):465-71. Abstract

53. Berchier CE, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. The efficacy of 0.12% chlorhexidine mouthrinse compared with 0.2% on plaque accumulation and periodontal parameters: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2010 Sep;37(9):829-39. Abstract

54. Murakami S, Mealey BL, Mariotti A, et al. Dental plaque-induced gingival conditions. J Periodontol. 2018 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S17-S27. Abstract

55. Pizzo G, Guiglia R, La Cara M, et al. The effects of an amine fluoride/stannous fluoride and an antimicrobial host protein mouthrinse on supragingival plaque regrowth. J Periodontol. 2004 Jun;75(6):852-7. [Erratum in: J Periodontol. 2005 Aug;76(8):1425.] Abstract

56. Gunsolley JC. Clinical efficacy of antimicrobial mouthrinses. J Dent. 2010 Jun;38(suppl 1):S6-10. Abstract

57. Van Leeuwen MP, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. Essential oils compared to chlorhexidine with respect to plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review. J Periodontol. 2011 Feb;82(2):174-94. Abstract

58. Feller L, Altini M, Chandran R, et al. Noma (cancrum oris) in the South African context. J Oral Pathol Med. 2014 Jan;43(1):1-6. Abstract

59. James P, Worthington HV, Parnell C, et al. Chlorhexidine mouthrinse as an adjunctive treatment for gingival health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;(3):CD008676.Full text  Abstract

60. Araujo MW, Charles CA, Weinstein RB, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect of an essential oil-containing mouthrinse on gingivitis and plaque. J Am Dent Assoc. 2015 Aug;146(8):610-22.Full text  Abstract

61. Parkinson CR, Milleman KR, Milleman JL. Gingivitis efficacy of a 0.454% w/w stannous fluoride dentifrice: a 24-week randomized controlled trial. BMC Oral Health. 2020 Mar 26;20(1):89.Full text  Abstract

62. Biesbrock A, He T, DiGennaro J, et al. The effects of bioavailable gluconate chelated stannous fluoride dentifrice on gingival bleeding: Meta-analysis of eighteen randomized controlled trials. J Clin Periodontol. 2019 Dec;46(12):1205-1216.Full text  Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer