Lymphoedema

References

Key articles

Brix B, Sery O, Onorato A, et al. Biology of lymphedema. Biology (Basel). 2021 Mar 25;10(4):261.Full text  Abstract

Manrique OJ, Bustos SS, Ciudad P, et al. Overview of lymphedema for physicians and other clinicians: a review of fundamental concepts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Aug 20:S0025-6196(20)30033-1.Full text  Abstract

Executive Committee of the International Society of Lymphology. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema: 2020 Consensus Document of the International Society of Lymphology. Lymphology. 2020;53(1):3-19.Full text  Abstract

Huang TW, Tseng SH, Lin CC, et al. Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World J Surg Oncol. 2013 Jan 24;11:15.Full text  Abstract

Nagase T, Gonda K, Inoue K, et al. Treatment of lymphedema with lymphaticovenular anastomoses. Int J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct;10(5):304-10. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Brouillard P, Witte MH, Erickson RP, et al. Primary lymphoedema. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021 Oct 21;7(1):77. Abstract

2. Schook CC, Mulliken JB, Fishman SJ, et al. Primary lymphedema: clinical features and management in 138 pediatric patients. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011 Jun;127(6):2419-31. Abstract

3. Maclellan RA, Greene AK. Lymphedema. Semin Pediatr Surg. 2014 Aug;23(4):191-7. Abstract

4. Brix B, Sery O, Onorato A, et al. Biology of lymphedema. Biology (Basel). 2021 Mar 25;10(4):261.Full text  Abstract

5. Lopez M, Roberson ML, Strassle PD, et al. Epidemiology of lymphedema-related admissions in the United States: 2012-2017. Surg Oncol. 2020 Dec;35:249-53. Abstract

6. Douglass J, Kelly-Hope L. Comparison of staging systems to assess lymphedema caused by cancer therapies, lymphatic filariasis, and podoconiosis. Lymphat Res Biol. 2019 Oct;17(5):550-6.Full text  Abstract

7. Ramaiah KD, Ottesen EA. Progress and impact of 13 years of the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis on reducing the burden of filarial disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014 Nov 20;8(11):e3319.Full text  Abstract

8. Manrique OJ, Bustos SS, Ciudad P, et al. Overview of lymphedema for physicians and other clinicians: a review of fundamental concepts. Mayo Clin Proc. 2020 Aug 20:S0025-6196(20)30033-1.Full text  Abstract

9. Bernas M, Thiadens SRJ, Stewart P, et al. Secondary lymphedema from cancer therapy. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2021 May 5. Abstract

10. Rockson SG, Keeley V, Kilbreath S, et al. Cancer-associated secondary lymphoedema. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019 Mar 28;5(1):22. Abstract

11. Singh B, Disipio T, Peake J, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of exercise for those with cancer-related lymphedema. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016 Feb;97(2):302-15.e13. Abstract

12. Rockson SG, Rivera KK. Estimating the population burden of lymphedema. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2008;1131:147-54. Abstract

13. McLaughlin SA, Wright MJ, Morris KT, et al. Prevalence of lymphedema in women with breast cancer 5 years after sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection: objective measurements. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Nov 10;26(32):5213-9. Abstract

14. Smeltzer DM, Stickler GB, Schirger A. Primary lymphedema in children and adolescents: a follow-up study and review. Pediatrics. 1985 Aug;76(2):206-18. Abstract

15. Goss JA, Maclellan RA, Greene AK. Adult-onset primary lymphedema: a clinical-lymphoscintigraphic study of 26 patients. Lymphat Res Biol. 2019 Dec;17(6):620-3. Abstract

16. Slavin SA, Greene AK, Borud LJ. Lymphedema. In: Weinzweig J, ed. Plastic surgery secrets plus. 2nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Mosby; 2009.

17. WHO Fact sheet. Lymphatic filariasis. 18 May 2021 [internet publication].Full text

18. Palumbo E. Filariasis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Acta Biomed. 2008 Aug;79(2):106-9. Abstract

19. Wynd S, Melrose WD, Durrheim DN, et al. Understanding the community impact of lymphatic filariasis: a review of the sociocultural literature. Bull World Health Organ. 2007 Jun;85(6):493-8.Full text  Abstract

20. McDougal WS. Lymphedema of the external genitalia. J Urol. 2003 Sep;170(3):711-6. Abstract

21. Warren AG, Slavin SA. Scar lymphedema: fact or fiction? Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Jul;59(1):41-5. Abstract

22. Telinius N, Hjortdal VE. Role of the lymphatic vasculature in cardiovascular medicine. Heart. 2019 Dec;105(23):1777-84. Abstract

23. Irrthum A, Karkkainen MJ, Devriendt K, et al. Congenital hereditary lymphedema caused by a mutation that inactivates VEGFR3 tyrosine kinase. Am J Hum Genet. 2000 Aug;67(2):295-301.Full text  Abstract

24. Irrthum A, Devriendt K, Chitayat D, et al. Mutations in the transcription factor gene SOX18 underlie recessive and dominant forms of hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia. Am J Hum Genet. 2003 Jun;72(6):1470-8.Full text  Abstract

25. Finegold DN, Kimak MA, Lawrence EC, et al. Truncating mutations in FOXC2 cause multiple lymphedema syndromes. Hum Mol Genet. 2001 May 15;10(11):1185-9.Full text  Abstract

26. Boon LM, Ballieux F, Vikkula M. Pathogenesis of vascular anomalies. Clin Plast Surg. 2011 Jan;38(1):7-19.Full text  Abstract

27. Alders M, Hogan BM, Gjini E, et al. Mutations in CCBE1 cause generalized lymph vessel dysplasia in humans. Nat Genet. 2009 Dec;41(12):1272-4. Abstract

28. Mortimer PS, Rockson SG. New developments in clinical aspects of lymphatic disease. J Clin Invest. 2014 Mar;124(3):915-21.Full text  Abstract

29. Keast DH, Despatis M, Allen JO, et al. Chronic oedema/lymphoedema: under-recognised and under-treated. Int Wound J. 2015 Jun;12(3):328-33.Full text  Abstract

30. Williams AF, Franks PJ, Moffatt CJ. Lymphoedema: estimating the size of the problem. Palliat Med. 2005 Jun;19(4):300-13. Abstract

31. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention. Lymphatic filariasis. 22 Oct 2018 [internet publication].Full text

32. Kissin MW, Querci della Rovere G, Easton D, et al. Risk of lymphoedema following the treatment of breast cancer. Br J Surg. 1986 Jul;73(7):580-4. Abstract

33. Cemal Y, Pusic A, Mehrara BJ. Preventative measures for lymphedema: separating fact from fiction. J Am Coll Surg. 2011 Oct;213(4):543-51. Abstract

34. Rockson SG. Lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 15;379(20):1937-44. Abstract

35. Greene AK, Grant FD, Slavin SA, et al. Obesity-induced lymphedema: clinical and lymphoscintigraphic features. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2015 Jun;135(6):1715-9. Abstract

36. Greene AK. Diagnosis and management of obesity-induced lymphedema. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Jul;138(1):111e-8e. Abstract

37. Greene AK, Grant FD, Slavin SA. Lower-extremity lymphedema and elevated body-mass index. N Engl J Med. 2012 May 31;366(22):2136-7.Full text  Abstract

38. Greene AK, Grant FD, Maclellan RA. Obesity-induced lymphedema nonreversible following massive weight loss. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2015 Jul 8;3(6):e426.Full text  Abstract

39. Maclellan RA, Zurakowski D, Grant FD, et al. Massive localized lymphedema: a case-control study. J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Feb;224(2):212-6. Abstract

40. Mansel RE, Fallowfield L, Kissin M, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy versus standard axillary treatment in operable breast cancer: the ALMANAC Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006 May 3;98(9):599-609.Full text  Abstract

41. Stemmer R. A clinical symptom for the early and differential diagnosis of lymphedema [in German]. Vasa. 1976;5(3):261-2. Abstract

42. Brorson H, Svensson H. Liposuction combined with controlled compression therapy reduces arm lymphedema more effectively than controlled compression therapy alone. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Sep;102(4):1058-67. Abstract

43. Warren AG, Janz BA, Slavin SA, et al. The use of bioimpedance analysis to evaluate lymphedema. Ann Plast Surg. 2007 May;58(5):541-3. Abstract

44. Ward LC, Dylke E, Czerniec S, et al. Confirmation of the reference impedance ratios used for assessment of breast cancer-related lymphedema by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy. Lymphat Res Biol. 2011 Mar;9(1):47-51. Abstract

45. Jain MS, Danoff JV, Paul SM. Correlation between bioelectrical spectroscopy and perometry in assessment of upper extremity swelling. Lymphology. 2010 Jun;43(2):85-94. Abstract

46. Executive Committee of the International Society of Lymphology. The diagnosis and treatment of peripheral lymphedema: 2020 Consensus Document of the International Society of Lymphology. Lymphology. 2020;53(1):3-19.Full text  Abstract

47. Hassanein AH, Maclellan RA, Grant FD, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of lymphoscintigraphy for lymphedema and analysis of false-negative tests. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2017 Jul 12;5(7):e1396.Full text  Abstract

48. Szuba S, Rockson SG. Lymphedema: classification, diagnosis and therapy. Vasc Med. 1998;3(2):145-56. Abstract

49. Slavin SA, Van den Abbeele A, Losken A, et al. Return of lymphatic function after flap transfer for acute lymphedema. Ann Surg. 1999 Mar;229(3):421-7.Full text  Abstract

50. Maclellan RA, Zurakowski D, Voss S, et al. Correlation between lymphedema disease severity and lymphoscintigraphic findings: a clinical-radiologic study. J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Sep;225(3):366-70. Abstract

51. Warren AG, Brorson H, Borud LJ, et al. Lymphedema: a comprehensive review. Ann Plast Surg. 2007 Oct;59(4):464-72. Abstract

52. Warren AG, Janz BA, Borud LJ, et al. Evaluation and management of the fat leg syndrome. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2007 Jan;119(1):9e-15e. Abstract

53. Rudkin GH, Miller TA. Lipedema: a clinical entity distinct from lymphedema. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1994 Nov;94(6):841-7. Abstract

54. Moseley AL, Carati CJ, Piller NB. A systematic review of common conservative therapies for arm lymphoedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Ann Oncol. 2007 Apr;18(4):639-46.Full text  Abstract

55. Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Troxel A, et al. Weight lifting in women with breast-cancer-related lymphedema. N Engl J Med. 2009 Aug 13;361(7):664-73.Full text  Abstract

56. Huang TW, Tseng SH, Lin CC, et al. Effects of manual lymphatic drainage on breast cancer-related lymphedema: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World J Surg Oncol. 2013 Jan 24;11:15.Full text  Abstract

57. Morgan PA, Franks PJ, Moffatt CJ. Health-related quality of life with lymphoedema: a review of the literature. Int Wound J. 2005 Mar;2(1):47-62. Abstract

58. Macfarlane CL, Budhathoki SS, Johnson S, et al. Albendazole alone or in combination with microfilaricidal drugs for lymphatic filariasis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jan 8;1(1):CD003753.Full text  Abstract

59. Cormier JN, Rourke L, Crosby M, et al. The surgical treatment of lymphedema: a systematic review of the contemporary literature (2004-2010). Ann Surg Oncol. 2012 Feb;19(2):642-51. Abstract

60. Greene AK, Slavin SA, Borud L. Treatment of lower extremity lymphedema with suction-assisted lipectomy. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2006 Oct;118(5):118e-21e. Abstract

61. Greene AK, Maclellan RA. Operative treatment of lymphedema using suction-assisted lipectomy. Ann Plast Surg. 2016 Sep;77(3):337-40. Abstract

62. Brorson H, Ohlin K, Olsson G, et al. Controlled compression and liposuction treatment for lower extremity lymphedema. Lymphology. 2008 Jun;41(2):52-63. Abstract

63. Brorson H. Liposuction in arm lymphedema treatment. Scand J Surg. 2003;92(4):287-95. Abstract

64. Brorson H, Svensson H. Skin blood flow of the lymphedematous arm before and after liposuction. Lymphology. 1997 Dec;30(4):165-72. Abstract

65. Greene AK, Voss SD, Maclellan RA. Liposuction for swelling in patients with lymphedema. N Engl J Med. 2017 Nov 2;377(18):1788-9.Full text  Abstract

66. Miller TA, Wyatt LE, Rudkin GH. Staged skin and subcutaneous excision for lymphedema: a favorable report of long-term results. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1998 Oct;102(5):1486-98. Abstract

67. Slavin SA, Upton J, Kaplan WD, et al. An investigation of lymphatic function following free-tissue transfer. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1997 Mar;99(3):730-41. Abstract

68. Baumeister RG, Siuda S. Treatment of lymphedemas by microsurgical lymphatic grafting: what is proved? Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990 Jan;85(1):64-74. Abstract

69. O'Brien BM, Mellow CG, Khazanchi RK, et al. Long-term results after microlymphaticovenous anastomoses for the treatment of obstructive lymphedema. Plast Reconstr Surg. 1990 Apr;85(4):562-72. Abstract

70. Becker C, Assouad J, Riquet M, et al. Postmastectomy lymphedema: long-term results following microsurgical lymph node transplantation. Ann Surg. 2006 Mar;243(3):313-5. Abstract

71. Campisi C, Eretta C, Pertile D, et al. Microsurgery for treatment of peripheral lymphedema: long-term outcome and future perspectives. Microsurgery. 2007;27(4):333-8. Abstract

72. Chang DW. Lymphaticovenular bypass for lymphedema management in breast cancer patients: a prospective study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2010 Sep;126(3):752-8. Abstract

73. Lin CH, Ali R, Chen SC, et al. Vascularized groin lymph node transfer using the wrist as a recipient site for management of postmastectomy upper extremity lymphedema. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009 Apr;123(4):1265-75. Abstract

74. Nagase T, Gonda K, Inoue K, et al. Treatment of lymphedema with lymphaticovenular anastomoses. Int J Clin Oncol. 2005 Oct;10(5):304-10. Abstract

75. Parrett BM, Sepic J, Pribaz JJ. The contralateral rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap for treatment of lower extremity lymphedema. Ann Plast Surg. 2009 Jan;62(1):75-9. Abstract

76. Tourani SS, Taylor GI, Ashton MW. Vascularized lymph node transfer: a review of the current evidence. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2016 Mar;137(3):985-93. Abstract

77. Sulo E, Hartiala P, Viitanen T, et al. Risk of donor-site lymphatic vessel dysfunction after microvascular lymph node transfer. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. 2015 Apr;68(4):551-8. Abstract

78. Vignes S, Blanchard M, Yannoutsos A, et al. Complications of autologous lymph-node transplantation for limb lymphoedema. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013 May;45(5):516-20.Full text  Abstract

79. Tiwari A, Cheng KS, Button M, et al. Differential diagnosis, investigation, and current treatment of lower limb lymphedema. Arch Surg. 2003 Feb;138(2):152-61.Full text  Abstract

80. British Lymphology Society. Consensus document on the management of cellulitis in lymphoedema. Dec 2016 [internet publication].Full text

81. Aygit AC, Yildirim AM, Dervisoglu S. Lymphangiosarcoma in chronic lymphoedema. Stewart-Treves syndrome. J Hand Surg Br. 1999 Feb;24(1):135-7. Abstract

82. Sagen A, Karesen R, Skaane P, et al. Validity for the simplified water displacement instrument to measure arm lymphedema as a result of breast cancer surgery. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2009 May;90(5):803-9. Abstract

83. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). L-Dex U400 for lymphoedema after breast cancer treatment: medtech innovation briefing 111. Jul 2017 [internet publication].Full text

84. Brorson H, Ohlin K, Svensson B. The facts about liposuction as a treatment for lymphoedema. J Lymphoedema. 2008;3(1):38-47.Full text

85. Greene AK, Borud L, Slavin SA. Blood pressure monitoring and venipuncture in the lymphedematous extremity. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2005 Dec;116(7):2058-9. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer