Primary prevention

Heart failure is the final pathway for a wide array of pathophysiological processes. Interventions that reduce the risk of development of any cardiovascular disease will ultimately reduce the incidence. Thus, key public health targets are prevention of development of hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity (i.e., metabolic syndrome), and ischaemic heart disease. Lifestyle modifications, such as increasing physical activity, reducing tobacco, alcohol, and recreational drug use, and reducing daily salt intake, and proper medical treatment of established diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary artery disease, are expected to help reduce incident heart failure.[71][72]

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