Evidence

Evidence tables

This table is a summary of the analysis reported in a Cochrane Clinical Answer that focuses on the above important clinical question.


Confidence in the evidence is high or moderate to high where GRADE has been performed and there is no difference in effectiveness between the intervention and comparison for key outcomes.


Population: Adults (mean age 53 to 79 years) with heart failure

Intervention: Telemedicine (includes remote monitoring with system for alerting healthcare professionals, automatic clinical review of data, and/or videoconferencing for patient assessment and self-management education and support) with or without usual care

Comparison: Usual care (where reported: home nursing visits or pharmacological treatment)

OutcomeEffectiveness (BMJ rating)?Confidence in evidence (GRADE)?

All‐cause mortality at median 6 months’ follow‐up ᵃ

No statistically significant difference

High

Disease‐specific quality of life at median 3 months’ follow‐up

Favours intervention

Moderate

All‐cause hospital admissions at median 8 months’ follow‐up: monitoring with clinical review of data

Unknown ᵇ

Moderate

All‐cause hospital admissions at median 8 months’ follow‐up: monitoring with alerts

Unknown ᶜ

Moderate

Heart failure and/or cardiovascular‐related admissions at 3-12 months’ follow‐up

Unknown ᵈ

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Emergency department and urgent care visits at median 4 months’ follow‐up

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Length of stay at median 6 months’ follow‐up

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Length of stay related to heart failure at median 6 months’ follow‐up

No statistically significant difference

GRADE assessment not performed for this outcome

Adverse effects

-

None of the studies identified by the review assessed this outcome

Note

ᵃ The Cochrane Clinical Answer (CCA) notes that there was a reduction in mortality with telemedicine that did not quite meet statistical significance.

ᵇ Results reported narratively (2 RCTs with 156 people; 1 favoured telemedicine while the other reported no statistically significant difference between treatment groups).

ᶜ Results reported narratively (9 RCTs with 4373 people, all of which reported no statistically significant difference between treatment groups, apart from 1 which favoured telemedicine).

ᵈ Results reported narratively (16 studies with 3236 people, 3 of which reported a reduction in heart failure and/or cardiovascular-related admissions with telemedicine, while the other studies reported similar rates of admission between treatment groups).

This evidence table is related to the following section/s:

Cochrane Clinical Answers

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