New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification
This classification is symptom-based and has primarily been used as shorthand to describe functional limitations. Heart failure symptoms may progress from one class to the next in a given patient, but can also follow the path in reverse; for example, a patient with NYHA class IV symptoms might have quick improvement to class III with diuretic therapy alone.
Class I: Mild. No limitation of physical activity. Ordinary physical activity does not cause undue fatigue, palpitations, or dyspnoea.
Class II: Mild. Slight limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but ordinary physical activity results in fatigue, palpitations, or dyspnoea.
Class III: Moderate. Marked limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest, but gentle activity causes fatigue, palpitations, or dyspnoea.
Class IV: Unable to carry out any physical activity without discomfort. Symptoms of cardiac insufficiency at rest. If any physical activity is undertaken, discomfort is increased.
Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer