Dermatomyositis

References

Key articles

Gerami P, Schope JM, McDonald L, et al. A systematic review of adult-onset clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis sine myositis): a missing link within the spectrum of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Apr;54(4):597-613. Abstract

Dalakas MC, Hohlfeld R. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Lancet. 2003 Sep 20;362(9388):971-82. Abstract

DeWane ME, Waldman R, Lu J. Dermatomyositis: clinical features and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Feb;82(2):267-81. Abstract

Lundberg IE, Tjärnlund A, Bottai M, et al. 2017 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Dec;76(12):1955-64.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Gerami P, Schope JM, McDonald L, et al. A systematic review of adult-onset clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis sine myositis): a missing link within the spectrum of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Apr;54(4):597-613. Abstract

3. Dalakas MC, Hohlfeld R. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Lancet. 2003 Sep 20;362(9388):971-82. Abstract

4. Sigurgeirsson B, Lindelof B, Edhag O, et al. Risk of cancer in patients with dermatomyositis or polymyositis: a population-based study. N Engl J Med. 1992 Feb 6;326(6):363-7. Abstract

5. Gerami P, Schope JM, McDonald L, et al. A systematic review of adult-onset clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis (dermatomyositis sine myositis): a missing link within the spectrum of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Apr;54(4):597-613. Abstract

6. Dalakas MC, Hohlfeld R. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Lancet. 2003 Sep 20;362(9388):971-82. Abstract

7. Bendewald MJ, Wetter DA, Li X, et al. Incidence of dermatomyositis and clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Arch Dermatol. 2010 Jan;146(1):26-30.Full text  Abstract

8. Gerami P, Walling HW, Lewis J, et al. A systematic review of juvenile-onset clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. Br J Dermatol. 2007 Oct;157(4):637-44. Abstract

9. Gaubitz M. Epidemiology of connective tissue disorders. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Oct;45 (suppl 3):iii3-4.Full text  Abstract

10. Smoyer-Tomic KE, Amato AA, Fernandes AW. Incidence and prevalence of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies among commercially insured, Medicare supplemental insured, and Medicaid enrolled populations: an administrative claims analysis. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012 Jun 15;13:103.Full text  Abstract

11. Caro I. Dermatomyostis. Semin Cutan Med Surg. 2001 Mar;20(1):38-45. Abstract

12. Marie I, Hatron PY, Levesque H, et al. Influence of age on characteristics of polymyositis and dermatomyositis in adults. Medicine (Baltimore). 1999 May;78(3):139-47.Full text  Abstract

13. Ramanan AV, Feldman BM. Clinical outcomes in juvenile dermatomyositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2002 Nov;14(6):658-62. Abstract

14. Mendez E, Lipton R, Dyer A, et al. The incidence of juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM): results from the NIAMS JDM research registry. Arthritis Rheum. 1999;42:S300.

15. Christopher-Stine L, Plotz PH. Myositis: an update on pathogenesis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 Nov;16(6):700-6. Abstract

16. Harati Y, Niakan E, Bergman EW. Childhood dermatomyositis in monozygotic twins. Neurology. 1986 May;36(5):721-3. Abstract

17. Leonhardt T. Familial occurrence of collagen diseases. II. Progressive systemic sclerosis and dermatomyositis. Acta Med Scand. 1961 Jun;169:735-42. Abstract

18. Walker GL, Mastaglia FL, Roberts DF. A search for genetic influence in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Acta Neurol Scand. 1982 Oct;66(4):432-43. Abstract

19. Lin JM, Zhang YB, Peng QL, et al. Genetic association of HLA-DRB1 multiple polymorphisms with dermatomyositis in Chinese population. HLA. 2017 Dec;90(6):354-9. Abstract

20. Werth VP, Callen JP, Ang G, et al. Associations of tumor necrosis factor alpha and HLA polymorphisms with adult dermatomyositis: implications for a unique pathogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2002 Sep;119(3):617-20. Abstract

21. Hausmanowa-Petrusewicz I, Kowalska-Oledzka E, Miller FW, et al. Clinical, serologic, and immunogenetic features in Polish patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Arthritis Rheum. 1997 Jul;40(7):1257-66. Abstract

22. Rider LG, Shamim E, Okada S, et al. Genetic risk and protective factors for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy in Koreans and American whites: a tale of two loci. Arthritis Rheum. 1999 Jun;42(6):1285-90.Full text  Abstract

23. Reed AM, Ytterberg SR. Genetic and environmental risk factors for idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Nov;28(4):891-916. Abstract

24. Okada S, Weatherhead E, Targoff IN, et al. Global surface ultraviolet radiation intensity may modulate the clinical and immunologic expression of autoimmune muscle disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2003 Aug;48(8):2285-93.Full text  Abstract

25. Love LA, Weinberg CR, McConnaughey DR, et al. Ultraviolet radiation intensity predicts the relative distribution of dermatomyositis and anti-Mi-2 autoantibodies in women. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Aug;60(8):2499-504.Full text  Abstract

26. DeWane ME, Waldman R, Lu J. Dermatomyositis: clinical features and pathogenesis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2020 Feb;82(2):267-81. Abstract

27. Reimers CD, Pongratz DE, Neubert U, et al. Myositis caused by Borrelia burgdorferi: report of four cases. J Neurol Sci. 1989 Jun;91(1-2):215-26. Abstract

28. Magid SK, Kagen LJ. Serologic evidence for acute toxoplasmosis in polymyositis-dermatomyositis. Increased frequency of specific anti-toxoplasmosa IgM antibodies. Am J Med. 1983 Aug;75(2):313-20. Abstract

29. Travers RL, Hughes GR, Cambridge G, et al. Coxsackie B neutralisation titres in polymyositis/dermatomyositis. Lancet. 1977 Jun 11;1(8024):1268. Abstract

30. Christensen ML, Pachman LM, Schneiderman R, et al. Prevalence of Coxsackie B virus antibodies in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1986 Nov;29(11):1365-70. Abstract

31. Pearson CM. Editorial: Myopathy with viral-like structures. N Engl J Med. 1975 Mar 20;292(12):641. Abstract

32. Bowles NE, Dubowitz V, Sewry CA, et al. Dermatomyositis, polymyositis, and Coxsackie-B-virus infection. Lancet. 1987 May 2;1(8540):1004-7. Abstract

33. Rosenberg NL, Rotbart HA, Abzug MJ, et al. Evidence for a novel picornavirus in human dermatomyositis. Ann Neurol. 1989 Aug;26(2):204-9. Abstract

34. Yousef GE, Isenberg DA, Mowbray JF. Detection of enterovirus specific RNA sequences in muscle biopsy specimens from patients with adult onset myositis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1990 May;49(5):310-5.Full text  Abstract

35. Mathews MB, Bernstein RM. Myositis autoantibody inhibits histidyl-tRNA synthetase: a model for autoimmunity. Nature. 1983 Jul 14-20;304(5922):177-9. Abstract

36. Dalakas MC, Pezeshkpour GH, Gravell M, et al. Polymyositis associated with AIDS retrovirus. JAMA. 1986 Nov 7;256(17):2381-3. Abstract

37. Wrzolek MA, Sher JH, Kozlowski PB, et al. Skeletal muscle pathology in AIDS: an autopsy study. Muscle Nerve. 1990 Jun;13(6):508-15. Abstract

38. Simpson NB, Golding JR. Dermatomyositis induced by penicillamine. Acta Derm Venereol. 1979;59(6):543-4. Abstract

39. Fernandes L, Swinson DR, Hamilton EB. Dermatomyositis complicating penicillamine treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 1977 Feb;36(1):94-5.Full text  Abstract

40. Dacey MJ, Callen JP. Hydroxyurea-induced dermatomyositis-like eruption. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003 Mar;48(3):439-41. Abstract

41. Khattak FH, Morris IM, Branford WA. Simvastatin-associated dermatomyositis. Br J Rheumatol. 1994 Feb;33(2):199. Abstract

42. Rodriguez-Garcia JL, Serrano Commino M. Lovastatin-associated dermatomyositis. Postgrad Med J. 1996 Nov;72(853):694.Full text  Abstract

43. Hill C, Zeitz C, Kirkham B. Dermatomyositis with lung involvement in a patient treated with simvastatin. Aust N Z J Med. 1995 Dec;25(6):745-6. Abstract

44. Thual N, Penven K, Chevallier JM, et al. Fluvastatin-induced dermatomyositis [in French]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2005 Dec;132(12 Pt 1):996-9. Abstract

45. Curran JJ, Jamieson TW. Dermatomyositis-like syndrome associated with phenylbutazone therapy. J Rheumatol. 1987 Apr;14(2):397-8. Abstract

46. Magro CM, Schaefer JT, Waldman J, et al. Terbinafine-induced dermatomyositis: a case report and literature review of drug-induced dermatomyositis. J Cutan Pathol. 2008 Jan;35(1):74-81. Abstract

47. Yoshifuji H, Fujii T, Kobayashi S, et al. Anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase antibodies in clinical course prediction of interstitial lung disease complicated with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Autoimmunity. 2006 May;39(3):233-41. Abstract

48. Hengstman GJ, van Engelen BG, van Venrooij WJ. Myositis specific autoantibodies: changing insights in pathophysiology and clinical associations. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2004 Nov;16(6):692-9. Abstract

49. Sato S, Hirakata M, Kuwana M, et al. Autoantibodies to a 140-kd polypeptide, CADM-140, in Japanese patients with clinically amyopathic dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 May;52(5):1571-6.Full text  Abstract

50. Tansley SL, Betteridge ZE, Shaddick G, et al. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis is influenced by both anti-NXP2 autoantibody status and age at disease onset. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014 Dec;53(12):2204-8.Full text  Abstract

51. Jablonska S, Blaszyk M. Scleromyositis (scleroderma/polimyositis overlap) is an entity. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004 May;18(3):265-6. Abstract

52. Kohsaka H, Mimori T, Kanda T, et al. Treatment consensus for management of polymyositis and dermatomyositis among rheumatologists, neurologists and dermatologists. Mod Rheumatol. 2019 Jan;29(1):1-19. Abstract

53. Greenberg SA, Amato AA. Uncertainties in the pathogenesis of adult dermatomyositis. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004 Jun;17(3):359-64. Abstract

54. Kissel JT, Mendell JR, Rammohan KW. Microvascular deposition of complement membrane attack complex in dermatomyositis. N Engl J Med. 1986 Feb 6;314(6):329-34. Abstract

55. Dalakas MC. Muscle biopsy findings in inflammatory myopathies. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2002 Nov;28(4):779-98, vi. Abstract

56. Dalakas MC. Polymyositis, dermatomyositis and inclusion-body myositis. N Engl J Med. 1991 Nov 21;325(21):1487-98. Abstract

57. Dalakas MC. Immunopathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. Ann Neurol. 1995 May;37 Suppl 1:S74-86. Abstract

58. Greenberg SA. Proposed immunologic models of the inflammatory myopathies and potential therapeutic implications. Neurology. 2007 Nov 20;69(21):2008-19. Abstract

59. Costner MI, Jacobe H. Dermatopathology of connective tissue diseases. Adv Dermatol. 2000;16:323-60. Abstract

60. Sontheimer RD. Photoimmunology of lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis: a speculative review. Photochem Photobiol. 1996 May;63(5):583-94. Abstract

61. Werth VP, Bashir M, Zhang W. Photosensitivity in rheumatic diseases. J Investig Dermatol Symp Proc. 2004 Jan;9(1):57-63. Abstract

62. Albert JM, Ott HJ. Calcifying dermatomyositis following antitentanus vaccination. Arch Int Med. 1983 Jul;143(7):1457-8. Abstract

63. Kass E, Straume S, Mellbye OJ, et al. Dermatomyositis associated with BCG vaccination. Scand J Rheumatol. 1979;8(3):187-91. Abstract

64. Ehrengut W. Dermatomyositis and vaccination. Lancet. 1978 May 13;1(8072):1040-1. Abstract

65. Cotterill JA, Shapiro H. Dermatomyostis after immunisation. Lancet. 1978 Nov 25;2(8100):1158-9. Abstract

66. Sontheimer R, Provost T. Cutaneous manifestations of rheumatic diseases. 2nd ed. Philidelphia: Lippencott, William & Wilkins; 2004.

67. Rockerbie NR, Woo TY, Callen JP, et al. Cutaneous changes of dermatomyositis precede muscle weakness. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989 Apr;20(4):629-32. Abstract

68. Cheong WK, Hughes GR, Norris PG, et al. Cutaneous photosensitivity in dermatomyositis. Br J Dermatol. 1994 Aug;131(2):205-8. Abstract

69. Shirani Z, Kucenic MJ, Carroll CL, et al. Pruritus in adult dermatomyositis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2004 May;29(3):273-6. Abstract

70. Blane CE, White SJ, Braunstein EM, et al. Patterns of calcification in childhood dermatomyositis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1984 Feb;142(2):397-400.Full text  Abstract

71. Cohen MG, Nash P, Webb J. Calcification is rare in adult-onset dermatopolymyositis. Clin Rheumatol. 1986 Dec;5(4):512-6. Abstract

72. Ohtsuka T. The relation between nailfold bleeding and capillary microscopic abnormality in patients with connective tissue diseases. Int J Dermatol. 998 Jan;37(1):23-6. Abstract

73. Maricq HR, LeRoy EC. Patterns of finger capillary abnormalities in connective tissue disease by "wide-field" microscopy. Arthritis Rheum. 1973 Sep-Oct;16(5):619-28. Abstract

74. Quain RD, Werth VP. Management of cutaneous dermatomyositis: current therapeutic options. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2006;7(6):341-51. Abstract

75. Klippel JH, Dieppe PA. Rheumatology. 2nd ed. London, UK: Mosby; 1997.

76. Schumacher HR, Schimmer B, Gordon GV, et al. Articular manifestations of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Am J Med. 1979 Aug;67(2):287-92. Abstract

77. Bunch TW, O'Duffy JD, McLeod RA. Deforming arthritis of the hands in polymyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1976 Mar-Apr;19(2):243-8. Abstract

78. Marie I, Hatron PY, Hachulla E, et al. Pulmonary involvement in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Rheumatol. 1998 Jul;25(7):1336-43. Abstract

79. Gonzalez-Lopez L, Gamez-Nava JI, Sanchez L, et al. Cardiac manifestations in dermato-polymyositis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996 Jul-Aug;14(4):373-9. Abstract

80. Riemekasten G, Opitz C, Audring H, et al. Beware of the heart: the multiple picture of cardiac involvement in myositis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 1999 Nov;38(11):1153-7.Full text  Abstract

81. Haupt HM, Hutchins GM. The heart and cardiac conduction system in polymyositis-dermatomyositis: a clinicopathologic study of 16 autopsied patients. Am J Cardiol. 1982 Nov;50(5):998-1006. Abstract

82. Stern R, Godbold JH, Chess Q, et al. ECG abnormalities in polymyositis. Arch Intern Med. 1984 Nov;144(11):2185-9. Abstract

83. Leteurtre E, Hachulla E, Janin A, et al. Vascular manifestations of dermatomyositis and polymyositis. Clinical, capillaroscopic and histological aspects [in French]. Rev Med Interne. 1994;15(12):800-7. Abstract

84. Jorizzo J. Dermatomyositis: practical aspects. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Jan;138(1):114-6. Abstract

85. Vignos PJ, Goldwyn J. Evaluation of laboratory tests in diagnosis and management of polymyositis. Am J Med Sci. 1972 Apr;263(4):291-308. Abstract

86. Dorph C, Nennesmo I, Lundberg IE. Percutaneous conchotome muscle biopsy: a useful diagnostic and assessment tool. J Rheumatol. 2001 Jul;28(7):1591-9. Abstract

87. Barkhaus PE, Nandedkar SD, Sanders DB. Quantitative EMG in inflammatory myopathy. Muscle Nerve. 1990 Mar;13(3):247-53. Abstract

88. Uncini A, Lange DJ, Lovelace RE, et al. Long-duration polyphasic motor unit potentials in myopathies: a quantitative study with pathological correlation. Muscle Nerve. 1990 Mar;13(3):263-7. Abstract

89. Reichlin M, Arnett FC. Multiplicity of antibodies in myositis sera. Arthritis Rheum. 1984 Oct;27(10):1150-6. Abstract

90. Merlo G, Clapasson A, Cozzani E, et al. Specific autoantibodies in dermatomyositis: a helpful tool to classify different clinical subsets. Arch Dermatol Res. 2017 Mar;309(2):87-95. Abstract

91. Alenzi FM. Myositis specific autoantibodies: a clinical perspective. Open Access Rheumatol. 2020 Jan 14;12:9-14.Full text  Abstract

92. Seelig HP, Moosbrugger I, Ehrfeld H, et al. The major dermatomyositis-specific autoantigen is a presumed helicase involved in transcriptional activation. Arthritis Rheum. 1995 Oct;38(10):1389-99. Abstract

93. Targoff IN, Reichlin M. The association between Mi-2 antibodies and dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1985 Jul;28(7):796-803. Abstract

94. Best M, Molinari N, Chasset F, et al. Use of anti-transcriptional intermediary factor-1 gamma autoantibody in identifying adult dermatomyositis patients with cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Derm Venereol. 2019 Mar 1;99(3):256-62.Full text  Abstract

95. Hengstman GJ, ter Laak HJ, Vree Egberts WT, et al. Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibodies: marker of a necrotising myopathy. Ann Rheum Dis. 2006 Dec;65(12):1635-8.Full text  Abstract

96. Tomasova Studynkova J, Charvat F, Jarosova K, et al. The role of MRI in the assessment of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2007 Jul;46(7):1174-9.Full text  Abstract

97. Adams EM, Chow CK, Premkumar A, et al. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: spectrum of MR imaging findings. Radiographics. 1995 May;15(3):563-74.Full text  Abstract

98. Dawkins MA, Jorizzo JL, Walker FO, et al. Dermatomyositis: a dermatology-based case series. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998 Mar;38(3):397-404. Abstract

99. Stonecipher MR, Jorizzo JL, White WL, et al. Cutaneous changes of dermatomyositis in patients with normal muscle enzymes: dermatomyositis sine myositis? J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993 Jun;28(6):951-6. Abstract

100. Hughes M, Lilleker JB, Herrick AL, et al. Cardiac troponin testing in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and systemic sclerosis-spectrum disorders: biomarkers to distinguish between primary cardiac involvement and low-grade skeletal muscle disease activity. Ann Rheum Dis. 2015 May;74(5):795-8.Full text  Abstract

101. Padley SP, Hansell DM, Flower CD, et al. Comparative accuracy of high resolution computed tomography and chest radiography in the diagnosis of chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. Clin Radiol. 1991 Oct;44(4):222-6. Abstract

102. Bonnefoy O, Ferretti G, Calaque O, et al. Serial chest CT findings in interstitial lung disease associated with polymyositis-dermatomyositis. Eur J Radiol. 2004 Mar;49(3):235-44. Abstract

103. de Merieux P, Verity MA, Clements PJ, et al. Esophageal abnormalities and dysphagia in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Arthritis Rheum. 1983 Aug;26(8):961-8. Abstract

104. Amoura Z, Duhaut P, Huong DL, et al. Tumor antigen markers for the detection of solid cancers in inflammatory myopathies. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 May;14(5):1279-82.Full text  Abstract

105. Provost TT, Flynn JA. Dermatomyositis. In: Provost TT, Flynn JA, eds. Cutaneous medicine. Hamilton, Ontario, Canada: B.C. Decker Inc; 2001:82-103.

106. Drake LA, Dinehart SM, Farmer ER, et al; American Academy of Dermatology. Guidelines of care for dermatomyositis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1996 May;34(5 Pt 1):824-9. Abstract

107. Sparsa A, Liozon E, Herrmann F, et al. Routine vs extensive malignancy search for adult dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a study of 40 patients. Arch Dermatol. 2002 Jul;138(7):885-90.Full text  Abstract

108. Rosenberg NL, Carry MR, Ringel SP. Association of inflammatory myopathies with other connective tissue disorders and malignancies. In: Dalakas MC, ed. Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis. Stoneham, MA: Butterworth; 1988:37-69.

109. Santmyire-Rosenberger B, Dugan EM. Skin involvement in dermatomyositis. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2003 Nov;15(6):714-22. Abstract

110. Koler RA, Montemarano A. Dermatomyositis. Am Fam Physician. 2001 Nov 1;64(9):1565-72.Full text  Abstract

111. Callen JP. Dermatomyositis. Lancet. 2000 Jan 1;355(9197):53-7. Abstract

112. Martin L, Chalmers IM, Dhingra S, et al. Measurements of maximum respiratory pressures in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Rheumatol. 1985 Feb;12(1):104-7. Abstract

113. Schmidt WA, Wetzel W, Friedlander R, et al. Clinical and serological aspects of patients with anti-Jo-1 autoantibodies: an evolving spectrum of disease manifestations. Clin Rheumatol. 2000;19(5):371-7. Abstract

114. Hunger RE, Durr C, Brand CU. Cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in dermatomyositis suggests malignancy. Dermatology. 2001;202(2):123-6. Abstract

115. Basset-Seguin N, Roujeau JC, Gherardi R, et al. Prognostic factors and predictive signs of malignancy in adult dermatomyositis: a study of 32 cases. Arch Dermatol. 1990 May;126(5):633-7. Abstract

116. Kagen LJ, Aram S. Creatine kinase activity inhibitor in sera from patients with muscle disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Feb;30(2):213-7. Abstract

117. Fudman EJ, Schnitzer TJ. Dermatomyositis without creatine kinase elevation: a poor prognostic sign. Am J Med. 1986 Feb;80(2):329-32. Abstract

118. Kagen LJ. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis. In: McCarty DJ, ed. Arthritis and allied conditions. 11th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger; 1989:1092-117.

119. Schweitzer ME, Fort J. Cost-effectiveness of MR imaging in evaluating polymyositis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995 Dec;165(6):1469-71.Full text  Abstract

120. Emslie-Smith AM, Engel AG. Microvascular changes in early and advanced dermatomyositis: a quantitative study. Ann Neurol. 1990 Apr;27(4):343-56. Abstract

121. Janis JF, Winkelmann RK. Histopathology of the skin in dermatomyositis. Arch Dermatol. 1968 Jun;97(6):640-50. Abstract

122. Brownlow K, Elevitch FR. Serum creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CPK2) in myositis. JAMA. 1974 Nov 25;230(8):1141-4. Abstract

123. Bruschi F, Murrell KD. New aspects of human trichinellosis: the impact of new Trichinella species. Postgrad Med J. 2002 Jan;78(915):15-22.Full text  Abstract

124. Lundberg IE, Tjärnlund A, Bottai M, et al. 2017 European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups. Ann Rheum Dis. 2017 Dec;76(12):1955-64.Full text  Abstract

125. Greenberg SA, Amato AA. Inflammatory myopathy associated with mixed connective tissue disease and scleroderma renal crisis. Muscle Nerve. 2001 Nov;24(11):1562-6. Abstract

126. Vermaak E, Tansley SL, McHugh NJ. The evidence for immunotherapy in dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a systematic review. Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Dec;34(12):2089-95. Abstract

127. Amato AA, Griggs RC. Treatment of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2003 Oct;16(5):569-75. Abstract

128. Chérin P, Herson S, Wechsler B, et al. Effectiveness of intravenous immunoglobulins in polymyositis and dermatomyositis: an open trial in 15 patients [in French]. Presse Med. 1991 Feb 16;20(6):244-9. Abstract

129. Giannini M, Callen JP. Treatment of dermatomyositis with methotrexate and prednisone. Arch Dermatol. 1979 Oct;115(10):1251-2. Abstract

130. Joffe MM, Love LA, Leff RL, et al. Drug therapy of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies: predictors of response to prednisone, azathioprine, and methotrexate and a comparison of their efficacy. Am J Med. 1993 Apr;94(4):379-87. Abstract

131. Cagnoli M, Marchesoni A, Tosi S. Combined steroid, methotrexate and chlorambucil therapy for steroid-resistant dermatomyositis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1991 Nov-Dec;9(6):658-9. Abstract

132. Newman ED, Scott DW. The use of low-dose oral methotrexate in the treatment of polymyositis and dermatomyositis. J Clin Rheumatol. 1995 Apr;1(2):99-102. Abstract

133. Metzger AL, Bohan A, Goldberg LS, et al. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis: combined methotrexate and corticosteroid therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1974 Aug;81(2):182-9. Abstract

134. Mastaglia FL, Garlepp MJ, Phillips BA, et al. Inflammatory myopathies: clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Muscle Nerve. 2003 Apr;27(4):407-25. Abstract

135. Qushmaq KA, Chalmers A, Esdaile JM. Cyclosporin A in the treatment of refractory adult polymyositis/dermatomyositis: population based experience in 6 patients and literature review. J Rheumatol. 2000 Dec;27(12):2855-9. Abstract

136. Cordeiro AC, Isenberg DA. Treatment of inflammatory myopathies. Postgrad Med J. 2006 Jul;82(969):417-24. Abstract

137. Correia O, Polonia J, Nunes JP, et al. Severe acute form of adult dermatomyositis treated with cyclosporine. Int J Dermatol. 1992 Jul;31(7):517-9. Abstract

138. Heckmatt J, Hasson N, Saunders C, et al. Cyclosporin in juvenile dermatomyositis. Lancet. 1989 May 13;1(8646):1063-6. Abstract

139. Gelber AC, Nousari HC, Wigley FM. Mycophenolate mofetil in the treatment of severe skin manifestations of dermatomyositis: a series of 4 cases. J Rheumatol. 2000 Jun;27(6):1542-5. Abstract

140. Edge JC, Outland JD, Dempsey JR, et al. Mycophenolate mofetil as an effective corticosteroid-sparing therapy for recalcitrant dermatomyositis. Arch Dermatol. 2006 Jan;142(1):65-9.Full text  Abstract

141. Ytterberg SR. Treatment of refractory polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2006 Jun;8(3):167-73. Abstract

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