Musculoskeletal sprains and strains

References

Key articles

Bahr R. Can we prevent ankle sprains? In: MacAuley D, Best TM, eds. Evidence-based sports medicine, 14th ed. London: BMJ, 2002:470.

Fong DT, Hong Y, Chan LK, et al. A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med. 2007;37:73-94. Abstract

Noonan TJ, Garrett WE Jr. Muscle strain injury: diagnosis and treatment. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999;7:262-269. Abstract

Speer KP, Lohnes J, Garett WE Jr. Radiographic imaging of muscle strain injury. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21:89-95. Abstract

Boutin RD, Fritz RC, Steinbach LS. Imaging of sports-related muscle injuries. Radiol Clin North Am. 2002;40:333-362. Abstract

Wexler RK. The injured ankle. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57:474-480.Full text  Abstract

Vuurberg G, Hoorntje A, Wink LM, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: update of an evidence-based clinical guideline. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Aug;52(15):956.Full text  Abstract

Hertel J. The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries. J Athl Train. 1997;32:350-358.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

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9. Fong DT, Hong Y, Chan LK, et al. A systematic review on ankle injury and ankle sprain in sports. Sports Med. 2007;37:73-94. Abstract

10. Garrett WE Jr. Muscle strain injuries. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24(suppl 6):2-8. Abstract

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22. Arrington ED, Miller MD. Skeletal muscle injuries. Orthop Clin North Am. 1995;26:411-422. Abstract

23. Best TM. Soft tissue injuries and muscle tears. Clin Sports Med. 1997;16:419-434. Abstract

24. Speer KP, Lohnes J, Garett WE Jr. Radiographic imaging of muscle strain injury. Am J Sports Med. 1993;21:89-95. Abstract

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31. Boutin RD, Fritz RC, Steinbach LS. Imaging of sports-related muscle injuries. Radiol Clin North Am. 2002;40:333-362. Abstract

32. Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Imaging., Smith SE, Chang EY, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Acute Trauma to the Ankle. J Am Coll Radiol. 2020 Nov;17(11s):S355-S366.Full text  Abstract

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34. Westacott DJ, Minns JI, Foguet P. The diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in gluteal tendon tears-a systematic review. Hip Int. 2011;21:637-645. Abstract

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36. Wexler RK. The injured ankle. Am Fam Physician. 1998;57:474-480.Full text  Abstract

37. Zhao HM, Yu GR, Yang YF, et al. Outcomes and complications of operative versus non-operative treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture: a meta-analysis. Chin Med J (Engl). 2011;124:4050-4055. Abstract

38. Kerkhoffs BM, Rowe BH, Assendelft WJ, et al. Immobilisation for acute ankle sprain. A systematic review. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2001;121:462-471. Abstract

39. Beynnon BD, Renstrom PA, Haugh L, et al. A prospective, randomized clinical investigation of the treatment of first-time ankle sprains. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1401-1412. Abstract

40. Ardèvol J, Bolíbar I, Belda V, et al. Treatment of complete rupture of the lateral ligaments of the ankle: a randomized clinical trial comparing cast immobilization with functional treatment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2002;10:371-377. Abstract

41. Jones P, Lamdin R, Dalziel SR. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs versus other oral analgesic agents for acute soft tissue injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Aug 12;8:CD007789.Full text  Abstract

42. Busse JW, Sadeghirad B, Oparin Y, et al. Management of Acute Pain From Non-Low Back, Musculoskeletal Injuries : A Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Trials. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Nov 3;173(9):730-738.Full text  Abstract

43. Qaseem A, McLean RM, O'Gurek D, et al. Nonpharmacologic and Pharmacologic Management of Acute Pain From Non-Low Back, Musculoskeletal Injuries in Adults: A Clinical Guideline From the American College of Physicians and American Academy of Family Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2020 Nov 3;173(9):739-748.Full text  Abstract

44. Kaikkonen A, Kannus P, Järvinen M. Surgery versus functional treatment in ankle ligament tears. A prospective study. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996 May;(326):194-202.Full text  Abstract

45. Willits K, Amendola A, Bryant D, et al. Operative versus nonoperative treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a multicenter randomized trial using accelerated functional rehabilitation. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2010 Dec 1;92(17):2767-75.Full text  Abstract

46. Vuurberg G, Hoorntje A, Wink LM, et al. Diagnosis, treatment and prevention of ankle sprains: update of an evidence-based clinical guideline. Br J Sports Med. 2018 Aug;52(15):956.Full text  Abstract

47. Costa ML, Achten J, Marian IR, et al. Plaster cast versus functional brace for non-surgical treatment of Achilles tendon rupture (UKSTAR): a multicentre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation. Lancet. 2020 Feb 8;395(10222):441-448.Full text  Abstract

48. Hertel J. The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries. J Athl Train. 1997;32:350-358.Full text  Abstract

49. Lynch SA, Renström PA. Treatment of acute lateral ankle ligament rupture in the athlete. Conservative versus surgical treatment. Sports Med. 1999;27:61-71. Abstract

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