Undesirable events occurring during sleep or during the transition into or out of sleep. They may occur during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, depending on the type of parasomnia.
They include abnormal behaviours (e.g., sleep-related eating) or dreams (e.g., nightmare disorder).
Diagnosis relies mainly on careful history from the patient or, more commonly, the bed partner or other household members.
Treatment is indicated if the parasomnia may result in injury to patient or bed partner or if sleep is significantly disrupted.
Management depends on the type of parasomnia and includes reassurance, sleep environment modification, cognitive therapy, and pharmacotherapy.
Parasomnias are undesirable sleep-related events that may occur during sleep or during the transition into sleep or out of sleep. They include abnormal behaviours (e.g., sleepwalking) and dreams (e.g., nightmares). Parasomnias may be transient and have no significant consequences on the patient's sleep health. However, in some cases they are severe or persistent enough to cause significant sleep disruption and distress or injury to the patient or bed partner.
Director of the Sleep Fellowship Program
HA is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
Dr Hrayr Attarian would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Pierre Giglio, a previous contributor to this monograph. PG declares that he has no competing interests.
Baylor College of Medicine
Texas Children's Hospital
Clinical Care Center
BH declares that she has no competing interests.
Professor and Chairman
Department of Neurology
Hennepin County Medical Center
MM is an author of a number of references cited in this monograph.
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