Disease estimates for pulmonary MAC disease in developed countries range from 0.9 to 1.3 cases per 100,000 people.[7] MAC lymphadenitis is primarily a disease of children with approximately 300 cases reported annually in the US.[8][9] Patients with healthy immune systems rarely develop illness as a result of MAC. However, in people with HIV, MAC can spread widely and affect almost any organ (especially the liver, spleen, and bone marrow). Prior to the availability of combination antiretroviral therapy, disseminated MAC occurred in 20% to 40% of AIDS patients.[10] Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy, the incidence of MAC has decreased significantly in HIV-infected patients.[11]

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