Toxoplasmosis

References

Key articles

Desmonts G. Couvreur J. Congenital toxoplasmosis: a prospective study of 378 pregnancies. N Eng J Med. 1974 May 16;290(20):1110-6. Abstract

Department of Health and Human Services, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. June 2021 [internet publication].Full text

Thompson MA, Horberg MA, Agwu AL, et al. Primary care guidance for persons with human immunodeficiency virus: 2020 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 6;ciaa1391.Full text  Abstract

Department of Health and Human Services, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected children. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

McLeod R, Boyer K, Karrison T, et al. Outcome of treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, 1981-2004: the National Collaborative Chicago-Based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 15;42(10):1383-94. Abstract

Roberts F, Kuo A, Jones L, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis: clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, animal models, and immune responses. In: Ajioka JW, Soldati D, eds. Toxoplasma molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2007:chapter 4.

Pradhan E, Bhandari S, Gilbert RE, et al. Antibiotics versus no treatment for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 20;(5):CD002218.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Dubey JP. The life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii. In: Ajioka JW, Soldati D, eds. Toxoplasma molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2007:chapter 1.

2. Rostami A, Riahi SM, Gamble HR, et al. Global prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2020 Jun;26(6):673-83.Full text  Abstract

3. Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Rivera H, et al. Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in the United States 2009-2010 and comparison with the past two decades. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014 Jun;90(6):1135-9. Abstract

4. Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Elder S, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States, 2011-2014. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2018 Feb;98(2):551-7.Full text  Abstract

5. Nogareda F, Le Strat Y, Villena I, et al. Incidence and prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in women in France, 1980-2020: model-based estimation. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Aug;142(8):1661-70.Full text  Abstract

6. Petersen E. Epidemiology, diagnostics, and chemotherapy. In: Ajioka JW, Soldati D, eds. Toxoplasma molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2007:chapter 3.

7. Mirinaviciute G, Barlinn R, Gjeruldsen Dudman S, et al. Immunity to varicella zoster virus among pregnant women in the Norwegian mother and child cohort study PLoS One. 2019 Aug 13;14(8):e0221084.Full text  Abstract

8. Torgerson PR, Mastroiacovo P. The global burden of congenital toxoplasmosis: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2013 Jul 1;91(7):501-8.Full text  Abstract

9. Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004 Jun 12;363(9425):1965-76. Abstract

10. Desmonts G. Couvreur J. Congenital toxoplasmosis: a prospective study of 378 pregnancies. N Eng J Med. 1974 May 16;290(20):1110-6. Abstract

11. Dunn D, Wallon M, Peyron F, et al. Mother-to-child transmission of toxoplasmosis: risk estimates for clinical counseling. Lancet. 1999 May 29;353(9167):1829-33. Abstract

12. Howe D, Sibley LD. Toxoplasma gondii comprises three clonal lineages: correlation of parasite genotype with human disease. J Infect Dis. 1995 Dec;172(6):1561-6. Abstract

13. Zhou P, Zhang H, Lin RQ, et al. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from China. Parasitol Int. 2009 Jun;58(2):193-5. Abstract

14. Ferreira Ade M, Vitor RW, Gazzinelli RT, et al. Genetic analysis of natural recombinant Brazilian Toxoplasma gondii strains by multilocus PCR-RFLP. Infect Genet Evol. 2006 Jan;6(1):22-31. Abstract

15. Boughattas S, Ben-Abdallah R, Siala E, et al. Direct genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii strains associated with congenital toxoplasmosis in Tunisia (North Africa). Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010 Jun;82(6):1041-6. Abstract

16. Jones JL, Dargelas V, Roberts J, et al. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Sep 15;49(6):878-84. Abstract

17. Dubey JP, Lindsay DS, Speer CA. Structures of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites, bradyzoites, and sporozoites and biology and development of tissue cysts. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1998 Apr;11(2):267-99.Full text  Abstract

18. Wilson CB, Remington JS, Stagno S, et al. Development of adverse sequelae in children born with subclinical congenital Toxoplasma infection. Pediatrics. 1980 Nov;66(5):767-74. Abstract

19. Campbell AL, Goldberg CL, Magid MS, et al. First case of toxoplasmosis following small bowel transplantation and systematic review of tissue-invasive toxoplasmosis following noncardiac solid organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2006 Feb 15;81(3):408-17. Abstract

20. Goldszmid RS, Bafica A, Jankovic D, et al. TAP-1 indirectly regulates CD4+ T cell priming in Toxoplasma gondii infection by controlling NK cell IFN-gamma production. J Exp Med. 2007 Oct 29;204(11):2591-602.Full text  Abstract

21. Liu CH, Fan YT, Dias A, et al. Cutting edge: dendritic cells are essential for in vivo IL-12 production and development of resistance against Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice. J Immunol. 2006 Jul 1;177(1):31-5.Full text  Abstract

22. Perona-Wright G, Mohrs K, Szaba FM, et al. Systemic but not local infections elicit immunosuppressive IL-10 production by natural killer cells. Cell Host Microbe. 2009 Dec 17;6(6):503-12.Full text  Abstract

23. Hunter CA, Lieberman LA, Mason N, et al. Costimulation in resistance to infection and development of immune pathology: lessons from toxoplasma. Immunol Res. 2003;27(2-3):331-40. Abstract

24. Adams LB, Hibbs JB Jr, Taintor RR, et al. Microbiostatic effect of murine-activated macrophages for Toxoplasma gondii. Role for synthesis of inorganic nitrogen oxides from L-arginine. J Immunol. 1990 Apr 1;144(7):2725-9. Abstract

25. Department of Health and Human Services, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. June 2021 [internet publication].Full text

26. Hoz RM La, Morris MI; Infectious Diseases Community of Practice of the American Society of Transplantation. Tissue and blood protozoa including toxoplasmosis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, Babesia, Acanthamoeba, Balamuthia, and Naegleria in solid organ transplant recipients - guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice. Clin Transplant. 2019 Sep;33(9):e13546. Abstract

27. Martino R, Bretagne S, Einsele H, et al. Early detection of Toxoplasma infection by molecular monitoring of Toxoplasma gondii in peripheral blood samples after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Jan 1;40(1):67-78.Full text  Abstract

28. Kim K. Toxoplasmosis. In: Conn's current therapy, Rakel RE, ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 2000:151-57.

29. Pfaff AW, Liesenfeld O, Candolfi E. Congenital toxoplasmosis. In: Ajioka JW, Soldati D, eds. Toxoplasma molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2007:chapter 5.

30. Remington JS, McLeod R, Desmonts G. Toxoplasmosis. In: Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant. JS Remington, JO Klein, eds. Philadelphia, PA: WB Saunders; 1995:chapter 5.

31. Chapey E, Wallon M, Debize G, et al. Diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis by using a whole-blood gamma interferon release assay. J Clin Microbiol. 2010 Jan;48(1):41-5.Full text  Abstract

32. Hoffmann C, Ernst M, Meyer P, et al. Evolving characteristics of toxoplasmosis in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1: clinical course and Toxoplasma gondii-specific immune responses. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2007 May;13(5):510-5.Full text  Abstract

33. Palanisamy M, Madhavan B, Balasundaram MB, et al. Outbreak of ocular toxoplasmosis in Coimbatore, India. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2006 Jun;54(2):129-31.Full text  Abstract

34. Boyer KM, Remington JS, McLeod R. Toxoplasmosis. In: Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Feigin RD, Cherry JD, Demmler GJ, et al, eds. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders; 2004:chapter 222.

35. Remington JS, Thulliez P, Montoya JG. Recent developments for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Mar;42(3):941-5.Full text  Abstract

36. Cinque P, Scarpellini P, Vago L, et al. Diagnosis of central nervous system complications in HIV-infected patients: cerebrospinal fluid analysis by the polymerase chain reaction. AIDS. 1997 Jan;11(1):1-17. Abstract

37. Robert-Gangneux F, Sterkers Y, Yera H, et al. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised patients: a 3-year multicenter retrospective study. J Clin Microbiol. 2015 May;53(5):1677-84. Abstract

38. Thompson MA, Horberg MA, Agwu AL, et al. Primary care guidance for persons with human immunodeficiency virus: 2020 update by the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Nov 6;ciaa1391.Full text  Abstract

39. Zufferey J, Sugar A, Rudaz P, et al. Prevalence of latent toxoplasmosis and serologic diagnosis of active infection in HIV-positive patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1993 Aug;12(8):591-5. Abstract

40. Zangerle R, Allerberger F, Pohl P, et al. High risk of developing toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients seropositive to Toxoplasma gondii. Med Microbiol Immunol. 1991;180(2):59-66. Abstract

41. US Department of Health and Human Services, Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network; United Network for Organ Sharing. Position statement: improving post-transplant communication of new donor information. Mar 2016 [internet publication].Full text

42. Derouin F, Pelloux H, ESCMID Study Group on Clinical Parasitology. Prevention of toxoplasmosis in transplant patients. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2008 Dec;14(12):1089-101.Full text  Abstract

43. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. ACOG guidelines at a glance: key points about 4 perinatal infections. Dec 2015 [internet publication].Full text

44. Guerina NG, Hsu HW, Meissner HC, et al. Neonatal serologic screening and early treatment for congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection. N Engl J Med. 1994 Jun 30;330(26):1858-63. Abstract

45. Department of Health and Human Services, Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Exposed and HIV-Infected children. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-exposed and HIV-infected children. March 2021 [internet publication].Full text

46. SYROCOT (Systematic Review on Congenital Toxoplasmosis) study group; Thiebaut R, Leproust S, Chêne G, et al. Effectiveness of prenatal treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis: a meta-analysis of individual patients' data. Lancet. 2007 Jan 13;369(9556):115-22. Abstract

47. Daffos F, Forestier F, Capella-Pavlovsky M, et al. Prenatal management of 746 pregnancies at risk for congenital toxoplasmosis. N Engl J Med. 1988 Feb 4;318(5):271-5. Abstract

48. Peyron F, L'ollivier C, Mandelbrot L, et al. Maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis: diagnosis and treatment recommendations of a French Multidisciplinary Working Group. Pathogens. 2019 Feb 18;8(1):24.Full text  Abstract

49. Khalil A, Sotiriadis A, Chaoui R, et al. ISUOG practice guidelines: role of ultrasound in congenital infection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2020 Jul;56(1):128-51.Full text  Abstract

50. Brown ED, Chau JK, Atashband S, et al. A systematic review of neonatal toxoplasmosis exposure and sensorineural hearing loss. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 May;73(5):707-11. Abstract

51. McLeod R, Boyer K, Karrison T, et al. Outcome of treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, 1981-2004: the National Collaborative Chicago-Based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 15;42(10):1383-94. Abstract

52. Roberts F, Kuo A, Jones L, et al. Ocular toxoplasmosis: clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, animal models, and immune responses. In: Ajioka JW, Soldati D, eds. Toxoplasma molecular and cellular biology. Norfolk, UK: Horizon Bioscience; 2007:chapter 4.

53. Pradhan E, Bhandari S, Gilbert RE, et al. Antibiotics versus no treatment for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 May 20;(5):CD002218.Full text  Abstract

54. Jasper S, Vedula SS, John SS, et al. Corticosteroids as adjuvant therapy for ocular toxoplasmosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 26;(1):CD007417.Full text  Abstract

55. Stanford MR, See SE, Jones LV, et al. Antibiotics for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: an evidence-based systematic review. Ophthalmology. 2003 May;110(5):926-31;quiz 931-2. Abstract

56. Silveira C, Belfort R, Muccioli C, et al. The effect of long-term intermittent trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment on recurrences of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul;134(1):41-6. Abstract

57. Kim SJ, Scott IU, Brown GC, et al. Interventions for toxoplasma retinochoroiditis: a report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2013 Feb;120(2):371-8. Abstract

58. Soheilian M, Sadoughi MM, Ghajarnia M, et al. Prospective randomized trial of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole versus pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmology. 2005 Nov;112(11):1876-82. Abstract

59. Sobrin L, Kump LI, Foster CS. Intravitreal clindamycin for toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis. Retina. 2007 Sep;27(7):952-7. Abstract

60. Bosch-Driessen LH, Verbraak FD, Suttorp-Schulten MS, et al. A prospective, randomized trial of pyrimethamine and azithromycin vs pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine for the treatment of ocular toxoplasmosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul;134(1):34-40. Abstract

61. Baharivand N, Mahdavifard A, Fouladi RF, et al. Intravitreal clindamycin plus dexamethasone versus classic oral therapy in toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Int Ophthalmol. 2013 Feb;33(1):39-46. Abstract

62. Felix JP, Lira RP, Zacchia RS, et al. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus placebo to reduce the risk of recurrences of toxoplasma gondii retinochoroiditis: randomized controlled clinical trial. Am J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr;157(4):762-66;e1. Abstract

63. Wallon M, Peyron F, Cornu C, et al. Congenital toxoplasma infection: monthly prenatal screening decreases transmission rate and improves clinical outcome at age 3 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 May;56(9):1223-31. Abstract

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