Primary hypothyroidism

References

Key articles

Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, et al. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2017 Sep 23;390(10101):1550-62.Full text  Abstract

Pearce EN, Farwell AP, Braverman LE. Thyroiditis. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2646-55. Abstract

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; American Thyroid Association. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract. 2012 Nov-Dec;18(6):988-1028.Full text  Abstract

Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-89.Full text  Abstract

Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 2014 Dec;24(12):1670-751.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Chaker L, Bianco AC, Jonklaas J, et al. Hypothyroidism. Lancet. 2017 Sep 23;390(10101):1550-62.Full text  Abstract

2. Cooper DS. Clinical practice. Subclinical hypothyroidism. N Engl J Med. 2001 Jul 26;345(4):260-5. Abstract

3. Andersson M, Karumbunathan V, Zimmermann MB. Global iodine status in 2011 and trends over the past decade. J Nutr. 2012 Apr;142(4):744-50.Full text  Abstract

4. Lazarus JH. The importance of iodine in public health. Environ Geochem Health. 2015 Aug;37(4):605-18.Full text  Abstract

5. Caldwell KL, Pan Y, Mortensen ME, et al. Iodine status in pregnant women in the National Children's Study and in U.S. women (15-44 years), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010. Thyroid. 2013 Aug;23(8):927-37.Full text  Abstract

6. Taylor PN, Albrecht D, Scholz A, et al. Global epidemiology of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2018 May;14(5):301-16. Abstract

7. Vanderpump MP, Tunbridge WM, French JM, et al. The incidence of thyroid disorders in the community: a twenty-year follow-up of the Whickham survey. Clin Endocrinol. 1995 Jul;43(1):55-68. Abstract

8. Hollowell JG, Staehling NW, Flanders WD, et al. Serum TSH, T(4) and thyroid antibodies in the United States population (1988 to 1994): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb;87(2):489-99.Full text  Abstract

9. Canaris GJ, Manowitz NR, Mayor G, et al. The Colorado thyroid disease prevalence study. Arch Intern Med. 2000 Feb 28;160(4):526-34. Abstract

10. Pearce EN, Farwell AP, Braverman LE. Thyroiditis. N Engl J Med. 2003 Jun 26;348(26):2646-55. Abstract

11. Rizzo LFL, Mana DL, Serra HA. Drug-induced hypothyroidism. Medicina (B Aires). 2017;77(5):394-404.Full text  Abstract

12. Gabora K, Piciu A, Bădulescu IC, et al. Current evidence on thyroid related adverse events in patients treated with protein tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Drug Metab Rev. 2019 Nov;51(4):562-569.Full text  Abstract

13. Keely EJ. Postpartum thyroiditis: an autoimmune thyroid disorder which predicts future thyroid health. Obstet Med. 2011 Mar;4(1):7-11.Full text  Abstract

14. Rayman MP. Multiple nutritional factors and thyroid disease, with particular reference to autoimmune thyroid disease. Proc Nutr Soc. 2019 Feb;78(1):34-44.Full text  Abstract

15. Leung AM, Braverman LE. Consequences of excess iodine. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2014 Mar;10(3):136-42.Full text  Abstract

16. Radetti G. Clinical aspects of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Endocr Dev. 2014;26:158-70. Abstract

17. Kahaly GJ, Frommer L. Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018 Jan;41(1):91-8. Abstract

18. Trohman RG, Sharma PS, McAninch EA, et al. Amiodarone and thyroid physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2019 Jul;29(5):285-295.Full text  Abstract

19. Kyritsi EM, Kanaka-Gantenbein C. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Specific Genetic Syndromes in Childhood and Adolescence. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2020;11:543.Full text  Abstract

20. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists; American Thyroid Association. Clinical practice guidelines for hypothyroidism in adults: cosponsored by the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American Thyroid Association. Endocr Pract. 2012 Nov-Dec;18(6):988-1028.Full text  Abstract

21. Carlé A, Pedersen IB, Knudsen N, et al. Hypothyroid symptoms and the likelihood of overt thyroid failure: a population-based case-control study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2014 Nov;171(5):593-602.Full text  Abstract

22. Canaris GJ, Steiner JF, Ridgway EC. Do traditional symptoms of hypothyroidism correlate with biochemical disease? J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Sep;12(9):544-50.Full text  Abstract

23. Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, et al. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease during pregnancy and the postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-89.Full text  Abstract

24. Wopereis DM, Du Puy RS, van Heemst D, et al. The relation between thyroid function and anemia: a pooled analysis of individual participant data. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Oct 1;103(10):3658-67.Full text  Abstract

25. Persani L, Cangiano B, Bonomi M. The diagnosis and management of central hypothyroidism in 2018. Endocr Connect. 2019 Feb;8(2):R44-R54.Full text  Abstract

26. LeFevre ML, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for thyroid dysfunction: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2015 May 5;162(9):641-50.Full text  Abstract

27. Rastogi MV, LaFranchi SH. Congenital hypothyroidism. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010 Jun 10;5:17.Full text  Abstract

28. Kopel J. A global perspective on newborn congenital hypothyroidism screening. Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent). 2020 Jan;33(1):137-139.Full text  Abstract

29. Rugge JB, Bougatsos C, Chou R. Screening and treatment of thyroid dysfunction: an evidence review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Jan 6;162(1):35-45.Full text  Abstract

30. Vissenberg R, van den Boogaard E, van Wely M, et al. Treatment of thyroid disorders before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2012 Jul;18(4):360-7. Abstract

31. Spencer L, Bubner T, Bain E, et al. Screening and subsequent management for thyroid dysfunction pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy for improving maternal and infant health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(9):CD011263.Full text  Abstract

32. Reid SM, Middleton P, Cossich MC, et al. Interventions for clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism pre-pregnancy and during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD007752.Full text  Abstract

33. Negro R, Schwartz A, Gismondi R, et al. Universal screening versus case finding for detection and treatment of thyroid hormonal dysfunction during pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Apr;95(4):1699-707. Abstract

34. Jonklaas J, Bianco AC, Bauer AJ, et al. Guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism: prepared by the American Thyroid Association Task Force on Thyroid Hormone Replacement. Thyroid. 2014 Dec;24(12):1670-751.Full text  Abstract

35. Villar HC, Saconato H, Valente O, et al. Thyroid hormone replacement for subclinical hypothyroidism. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2007;(3):CD003419.Full text  Abstract

36. Rodondi N, den Elzen WP, Bauer DC, et al. Subclinical hypothyroidism and the risk of coronary heart disease and mortality. JAMA. 2010 Sep 22;304(12):1365-74. Abstract

37. British Columbia Ministry of Health. Thyroid function tests in the diagnosis and monitoring of thyroid function disorders. October 2018 [internet publication].Full text

38. Roos A, Linn-Rasker SP, van Domburg RT, et al. The starting dose of levothyroxine in primary hypothyroidism treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Aug 8-22;165(15):1714-20.Full text  Abstract

39. Okosieme O, Gilbert J, Abraham P, et al. Management of primary hypothyroidism: statement by the British Thyroid Association Executive Committee. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2016 Jun;84(6):799-808.Full text  Abstract

40. Thayakaran R, Adderley NJ, Sainsbury C, et al. Thyroid replacement therapy, thyroid stimulating hormone concentrations, and long term health outcomes in patients with hypothyroidism: longitudinal study. BMJ. 2019 Sep 3;366:l4892.Full text  Abstract

41. van den Boogaard E, Vissenberg R, Land JA, et al. Significance of (sub)clinical thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity before conception and in early pregnancy: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Sep-Oct;17(5):605-19. Abstract

42. Maraka S, Mwangi R, McCoy RG, et al. Thyroid hormone treatment among pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism: US national assessment. BMJ. 2017;356:i6865.Full text  Abstract

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