Priapism

References

Key articles

Bivalacqua TJ, Allen BK, Brock G, et al. Acute ischemic priapism: an AUA/SMSNA guideline. J Urol. 2021;206(5):1114-21.Full text

Montague DK, Jarow J, Broderick GA, et al; American Urological Association. Guideline on the management of priapism. J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1318-24.Full text  Abstract

Broderick GA, Kadioglu A, Bivalacqua TJ, et al. Priapism: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management. J Sex Med. 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 2):476-500. Abstract

European Association of Urology. Guidelines: sexual and reproductive health. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Evidence-based management of sickle cell disease: expert panel report, 2014. Sep 2014 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

1. Bivalacqua TJ, Allen BK, Brock G, et al. Acute ischemic priapism: an AUA/SMSNA guideline. J Urol. 2021;206(5):1114-21.Full text

2. Burnett AL, Bivalacqua TJ. Priapism: current principles and practice. Urol Clin North Am. 2007 Nov;34(4):631-42. Abstract

3. Montague DK, Jarow J, Broderick GA, et al; American Urological Association. Guideline on the management of priapism. J Urol. 2003 Oct;170(4 Pt 1):1318-24.Full text  Abstract

4. Broderick GA, Kadioglu A, Bivalacqua TJ, et al. Priapism: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and management. J Sex Med. 2010 Jan;7(1 Pt 2):476-500. Abstract

5. European Association of Urology. Guidelines: sexual and reproductive health. 2022 [internet publication].Full text

6. Berger R, Billups K, Brock G, et al. Report of the American Foundation for Urologic Disease (AFUD) Thought Leader Panel for evaluation and treatment of priapism. Int J Impot Res. 2001 Dec;13(suppl 5):S39-43. Abstract

7. Donaldson JF, Rees RW, Steinbrecher HA. Priapism in children: a comprehensive review and clinical guideline. J Pediatr Urol. 2014 Feb;10(1):11-24.Full text  Abstract

8. Mantadakis E, Cavender JD, Rogers ZR, et al. Prevalence of priapism in children and adolescents with sickle cell anemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1999 Nov-Dec;21(6):518-22. Abstract

9. Adeyoju AB, Olujohungbe AB, Morris J, et al. Priapism in sickle-cell disease; incidence, risk factors and complications - an international multicentre study. BJU Int. 2002 Dec;90(9):898-902. Abstract

10. Aliyu ZY, Kato GJ, Taylor J 6th, et al. Sickle cell disease and pulmonary hypertension in Africa: a global perspective and review of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Am J Hematol. 2008 Jan;83(1):63-70.Full text  Abstract

11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Data & statistics on sickle cell disease. Dec 2020 [internet publication].Full text

12. Ahuja G, Ibecheozor C, Okorie NC, et al. Priapism and sickle cell disease: special considerations in etiology, management, and prevention. Urology. 2021 Oct;156:e40-7. Abstract

13. Bennett N, Mulhall J. Sickle cell disease status and outcomes of African-American men presenting with priapism. J Sex Med. 2008 May;5(5):1244-50. Abstract

14. Feldstein VA. Posttraumatic "high-flow" priapism evaluation with color flow Doppler sonography. J Ultrasound Med. 1993 Oct;12(10):589-93. Abstract

15. Kovac JR, Mak SK, Garcia MM, et al. A pathophysiology-based approach to the management of early priapism. Asian J Androl. 2013 Jan;15(1):20-6.Full text  Abstract

16. Becerra-Pedraza LC, Jiménez-Martínez LE, Peña-Morfin I, et al. Priapism as the initial sign in hematologic disease: case report and literature review. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018;43:13-7.Full text  Abstract

17. Mearini L, Colella R, Zucchi A, et al. A review of penile metastasis. Oncol Rev. 2012 Mar 5;6(1):e10. Abstract

18. Ali E, Soliman A, De Sanctis V, et al. Priapism in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): a systematic review. Acta Biomed. 2021 Jul 1;92(3):e2021193.Full text  Abstract

19. Rezaee ME, Gross MS. Are we overstating the risk of priapism with oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors? J Sex Med. 2020 Aug;17(8):1579-82. Abstract

20. Witt MA, Goldstein I, Saenz de Tejada I, et al. Traumatic laceration of intracavernosal arteries: the pathophysiology of nonischemic, high flow, arterial priapism. J Urol. 1990 Jan;143(1):129-32. Abstract

21. Jesus LE, Dekermacher S. Priapism in children: review of pathophysiology and treatment. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2009 May-Jun;85(3):194-200. Abstract

22. Brock G, Breza J, Lue TF, et al. High flow priapism: a spectrum of disease. J Urol. 1993 Sep;150(3):968-71. Abstract

23. Dubocq FM, Tefilli MV, Grignon DJ, et al. High flow malignant priapism with isolated metastasis to the corpora cavernosa. Urology. 1998 Feb;51(2):324-6. Abstract

24. Bivalacqua TJ, Burnett AL. Priapism. In: Graham SD, Glen JF, eds. Glenn’s urologic surgery. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010:487-91.

25. Levey HR, Segal RL, Bivalacqua TJ. Management of priapism: an update for clinicians. Ther Adv Urol. 2014 Dec;6(6):230-44.Full text  Abstract

26. Ricciardi R Jr, Bhatt GM, Cynamon J, et al. Delayed high flow priapism: pathophysiology and management. J Urol. 1993 Jan;149(1):119-21. Abstract

27. Burnett AL. Pathophysiology of priapism: dysregulatory erection physiology thesis. J Urol. 2003 Jul;170(1):26-34. Abstract

28. Bivalacqua TJ, Burnett AL. Priapism: new concepts in the pathophysiology and new treatment strategies. Curr Urol Rep. 2006 Nov;7(6):497-502. Abstract

29. Bivalacqua TJ, Musicki B, Champion HC, et al. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy for priapism. In: Carson CC III, Kirby RS, Goldstein R, et al, eds. Textbook of erectile dysfunction. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Informa Healthcare; 2009:428-33.

30. Hamre MR, Harmon EP, Kirkpatrick DV, et al. Priapism as a complication of sickle cell disease. J Urol. 1991;145:1-5. Abstract

31. Chan PT, Begin LR, Arnold D, et al. Priapism secondary to penile metastasis: a report of two cases and a review of the literature. J Surg Oncol. 1998 May;68(1):51-9. Abstract

32. Burnett AL. Priapism. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, et al, eds. Campbell-Walsh urology. 9th ed. Philadelphia PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:839-49.

33. Lue TF, Hellstrom WJ, McAninch JW, et al. Priapism: a refined approach to diagnosis and treatment. J Urol. 1986 Jul;136(1):104-8. Abstract

34. Bastuba MD, Saenz de Tejada I, Dinlenc CZ, et al. Arterial priapism: diagnosis, treatment and long-term followup. J Urol. 1994 May;151(5):1231-7. Abstract

35. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Evidence-based management of sickle cell disease: expert panel report, 2014. Sep 2014 [internet publication].Full text

36. Mantadakis E, Ewalt DH, Cavender JD, et al. Outpatient penile aspiration and epinephrine irrigation for young patients with sickle cell anemia and prolonged priapism. Blood. 2000 Jan 1;95(1):78-82.Full text  Abstract

37. Burnett AL. Surgical management of ischemic priapism. J Sex Med. 2012 Jan;9(1):114-20. Abstract

38. Brant WO, Garcia MM, Bella AJ, et al. T-shaped shunt and intracavernous tunneling for prolonged ischemic priapism. J Urol. 2009 Apr;181(4):1699-705. Abstract

39. Burnett AL, Pierorazio PM. Corporal "snake" maneuver: corporoglanular shunt surgical modification for ischemic priapism. J Sex Med. 2009 Apr;6(4):1171-6. Abstract

40. Ralph DJ, Garaffa G, Muneer A, et al. The immediate insertion of a penile prosthesis for acute ischaemic priapism. Eur Urol. 2009 Dec;56(6):1033-8. Abstract

41. Monga M, Broderick GA, Hellstrom WJ. Priapism in sickle cell disease: the case for early implantation of the penile prosthesis. Eur Urol. 1996;30(1):54-9. Abstract

42. Montague DK, Angermeier KW. Corporeal excavation: new technique for penile prosthesis implantation in men with severe corporeal fibrosis.Urology. 2006 May;67(5):1072-5. Abstract

43. Rees RW, Kalsi J, Minhas S, et al. The management of low-flow priapism with the immediate insertion of a penile prosthesis. BJU Int. 2002 Dec;90(9):893-7. Abstract

44. Tausch TJ, Evans LA, Morey AF. Immediate insertion of a semirigid penile prosthesis for refractory ischemic priapism. Mil Med. 2007 Nov;172(11):1211-2. Abstract

45. Chinegwundoh FI, Smith S, Anie KA. Treatments for priapism in boys and men with sickle cell disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 6;4:CD004198.Full text  Abstract

46. van Driel MF, Beck JJ, Elzevier HW, et al. The treatment of sleep-related painful erections. J Sex Med. 2008 Apr;5(4):909-18. Abstract

47. Rourke KF, Fischler AH, Jordan GH. Treatment of recurrent idiopathic priapism with oral baclofen. J Urol. 2002 Dec;168(6):2552-3. Abstract

48. Koyuncu E, Taşoğlu Ö, Orhan A, et al. Recurrent priapism in spinal cord injury: a case report. J Spinal Cord Med. 2021 Mar;44(2):331-3. Abstract

49. D'Aleo G, Rifici C, Kofler M, et al. Favorable response to intrathecal, but not oral, baclofen of priapism in a patient with spinal cord injury. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2009 Feb 1;34(3):E127-9. Abstract

50. Burnett AL, Bivalacqua TJ, Champion HC, et al. Long-term oral phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor therapy alleviates recurrent priapism. Urology. 2006 May;67(5):1043-8. Abstract

51. Champion HC, Bivalacqua TJ, Takimoto E, et al. Phosphodiesterase-5A dysregulation in penile erectile tissue is a mechanism of priapism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Feb 1;102(5):1661-6.Full text  Abstract

52. Burnett AL, Bivalacqua TJ, Champion HC, et al. Feasibility of the use of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors in a pharmacologic prevention program for recurrent priapism. J Sex Med. 2006 Nov;3(6):1077-84. Abstract

53. Anele UA, Morrison BF, Burnett AL. Molecular pathophysiology of priapism: emerging targets. Curr Drug Targets. 2015;16(5):474-83. Abstract

54. Hou LT, Burnett AL. Regimented phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor use reduces emergency department visits for recurrent ischemic priapism. J Urol. 2021 Feb;205(2):545-53. Abstract

55. Burnett AL, Anele UA, Trueheart IN, et al. Randomized controlled trial of sildenafil for preventing recurrent ischemic priapism in sickle cell disease. Am J Med. 2014 Jul;127(7):664-8. Abstract

56. Yuan J, Desouza R, Westney OL, Wang R. Insights of priapism mechanism and rationale treatment for recurrent priapism. Asian J Androl. 2008 Jan;10(1):88-101.Full text  Abstract

57. DeCastro BJ, Costabile RA, McMann LP, Peterson AC. Oral ketoconazole for prevention of postoperative penile erection: a placebo controlled, randomized, double-blind trial. J Urol. 2008 May;179(5):1930-2. Abstract

58. Evans KC, Peterson AC, Ruiz HE, Costabile RA. Use of oral ketoconazole to prevent postoperative erections following penile surgery. Int J Impot Res. 2004 Aug;16(4):346-9. Abstract

59. Hoeh MP, Levine LA. Prevention of recurrent ischemic priapism with ketoconazole: evolution of a treatment protocol and patient outcomes. J Sex Med. 2014 Jan;11(1):197-204. Abstract

60. Abern MR, Levine LA. Ketoconazole and prednisone to prevent recurrent ischemic priapism. J Urol. 2009 Oct;182(4):1401-6. Abstract

61. Spycher MA, Hauri D. The ultrastructure of the erectile tissue in priapism. J Urol. 1986 Jan;135(1):142-7. Abstract

62. Muneer A, Cellek S, Dogan A, et al. Investigation of cavernosal smooth muscle dysfunction in low flow priapism using an in vitro model. Int J Impot Res. 2005 Jan-Feb;17(1):10-8. Abstract

63. Kandel GL, Bender LI, Grove JS. Pulmonary embolism: a complication of corpus-saphenous shunt for priapism. J Urol. 1968 Feb;99(2):196-7. Abstract

64. Ochoa Urdangarain O, Hermida Perez JA. Priapism: our experience [in Spanish]. Arch Esp Urol. 1998 Apr;51(3):269-76. Abstract

65. De Stefani S, Savoca G, Ciampalini S, et al. Urethrocutaneous fistula as a severe complication of treatment for priapism. BJU Int. 2001 Oct;88(6):642-3. Abstract

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