Infertility in women

References

Key articles

Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Smoking and infertility. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(5 Suppl):S254-9. Abstract

National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility problems: assessment and treatment. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

Eichener SF, Timpe EM. Urinary-based ovulation and pregnancy: point-of-care testing. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Feb;38(2):325-31. Abstract

Balen AH, Anderson RA; Policy & Practice Committee of the BFS. Impact of obesity on female reproductive health: British Fertility Society Practice and Policy Guidelines. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2007 Dec;10(4):195-206. Abstract

Requena AH, Herrero J, Landeras J, et al. Use of letrozole in assisted reproduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):571-82.Full text  Abstract

Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008 Mar;89(3):505-22. Abstract

Chua SJ, Akande VA, Mol BW. Surgery for tubal infertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 23;1:CD006415.Full text  Abstract

Hart RJ, Hickey M, Maouris P, et al. Excisional surgery versus ablative surgery for ovarian endometriomata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):CD004992.Full text  Abstract

Tsoumpou I, Kyrgiou M, Gelbaya TA, et al. The effect of surgical treatment for endometrioma on in vitro fertilization outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul;92(1):75-87. Abstract

Liu KE, Case A. No. 346 - advanced reproductive age and fertility. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017 Aug;39(8):685-95. Abstract

Pandian Z, Gibreel A, Bhattacharya S. In vitro fertilisation for unexplained subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 19;(11):CD003357Full text  Abstract

Anderson RA, Pickering S. The current status of preimplantation screening: British Fertility Society Practice and Policy Guidelines. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2008 Jun;11(2):71-5. Abstract

Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Criteria for number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013 Jan;99(1):44-6.Full text  Abstract

Reference articles

1. Speroff L, Fritz MA. Female infertility. In: Clinical gynecologic endocrinology and infertility. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2005:1028.

2. Gupta S, Goldberg JM, Aziz N, et al. Pathogenic mechanisms in endometriosis-associated infertility. Fertil Steril. 2008 Aug;90(2):247-57. Abstract

3. Sciarra JJ. Infertility: a global perspective on the role of infections. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1991 Jun;626(1):478-83. Abstract

4. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Infertility FAQs. April 2018 [internet publication].Full text

5. Chandra A, Martinez GM, Mosher WD, et al. Fertility, family planning, and reproductive health of US women: data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth. Vital Health Stat 23. 2005 Dec;(25):1-160.Full text  Abstract

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. 2015 Assisted Reproductive Technology national summary report. Atlanta, GA: US Dept of Health and Human Services; October 2017.Full text

7. Smith S, Pfeifer SM, Collins JA. Diagnosis and management of female infertility. JAMA. 2003 Oct 1;290(13):1767-70. Abstract

8. Baird DT, Collins J, Egozcue J, et al; ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Fertility and ageing. Hum Reprod Update. 2005 May-Jun;11(3):261-76.Full text  Abstract

9. Tietze C. Reproductive span and rate of reproduction among Hutterite women. Fertil Steril. 1957 Jan-Feb;8(1):89-97. Abstract

10. Schwartz D, Mayaux MJ, The Federation des Centres d'Etude et de Conservation du Sperme-Humain. Female fecundity as a function of age. Results of artificial insemination in 2193 nulliparous women with azoospermic husbands. N Engl J Med. 1982 Feb 18;306(7):404-6. Abstract

11. Dechanet C, Anahory T, Mathieu Daude JC, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on reproduction. Hum Reprod Update. 2011 Jan-Feb;17(1):76-95. Abstract

12. MG Hull, North K, Taylor H, et al. Delayed conception and active and passive smoking: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood Study Team. Fertil Steril. 2000 Oct;74(4):725-33. Abstract

13. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Smoking and infertility. Fertil Steril. 2008 Nov;90(5 Suppl):S254-9. Abstract

14. Mantzoros CS. Role of leptin in reproduction. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000 Jan 25;900(1):174-83. Abstract

15. Moschos S, Chan JL, Mantzoros CS. Leptin and reproduction: a review. Fertil Steril. 2002 Mar;77(3):433-44. Abstract

16. Moran LJ, Noakes M, Clifton PM, et al. Dietary composition in restoring reproductive and metabolic physiology in overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Feb;88(2):812-9. Abstract

17. Metwally M, Ledger WL, Li TC. Reproductive endocrinology and clinical aspects of obesity in women. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008 Apr;1127:140-6. Abstract

18. Golden NH, Jacobson MS, Schebendach J, et al. Resumption of menses in anorexia nervosa. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1997 Jan;151(1):16-21. Abstract

19. Chan JL, Mantzoros CS. Role of leptin in energy-deprivation states: normal human physiology and clinical implications for hypothalamic amenorrhoea and anorexia nervosa. Lancet. 2005 Jul 2-8;366(9479):74-85. Abstract

20. Paavonen J, Eggert-Kruse W. Chlamydia trachomatis: impact on human reproduction. Hum Reprod Update. 1999 Sep-Oct;5(5):433-47. Abstract

21. den Hartog JE, Morre SA, Land JA. Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal factor subfertility: immunogenetic aspects and serological screening. Hum Reprod Update. 2006 Nov-Dec;12(6):719-30.Full text  Abstract

22. Westrom L. Sexually transmitted diseases and infertility. Sex Trans Dis. 1994 Mar-Apr;21(2 Suppl):S32-7. Abstract

23. Leyland NC, Awadalla AB, Rittenberg F. Endometriosis: Diagnosis and management. Journal of Endometriosis. 2010 Jul 1;2(3):107-34.

24. Abruzzo MA, Hassold TJ. Etiology of nondisjunction in humans. Environ Mol Mutagen. 1995;25 Suppl 26:38-47. Abstract

25. Battaglia DE, Goodwin P, Klein NA, et al. Influence of maternal age on meiotic spindle assembly in oocytes from naturally cycling women. Hum Reprod. 1996 Oct;11(10):2217-22. Abstract

26. Keefe DL, Liu L, Marquard K. Telomeres and aging-related meiotic dysfunction in women. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Jan;64(2):139-43. Abstract

27. Isaksson R, Tiitinen A. Present concept of unexplained infertility. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2004 May;18(5):278-90. Abstract

28. Hassan MA, Lavery SA, Trew GH. Congenital uterine anomalies and their impact on fertility. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2010 May;6(3):443-61. Abstract

29. van Noord-Zaadstra BM, Looman CW, Alsbach H, et al. Delaying childbearing: effect of age on fecundity and outcome of pregnancy. BMJ. 1991 Jun 8;302(6789):1361-5. Abstract

30. Levine AH, Pomeroy JC, Wilson TA. Hypothalamic dysfunction at ideal body weight simulating anorexia nervosa. J Pediatr Endocrinol. 1994 Oct-Dec;7(4):357-60. Abstract

31. Cooper GS, Baird DD, Hulka BS, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone concentrations in relation to active and passive smoking. Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Mar;85(3):407-11. Abstract

32. Adena MA, Gallagher HG. Cigarette smoking and the age at menopause. Ann Hum Biol. 1982 Mar-Apr;9(2):121-30. Abstract

33. Sauer MA, Rifka SM, Hawks RL, et al. Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1983 Feb;224(2):404-7. Abstract

34. Reichman ME, Judd JT, Longcope C, et al. Effects of alcohol consumption on plasma and urinary hormone concentrations in premenopausal women. J National Cancer Institute. 1993 May 5;85(9):722-7. Abstract

35. Hakim RB, Gray RH, Zacur H. Alcohol and caffeine consumption and decreased fertility. Fertil Steril. 1998 Oct;70(4):632-7. Abstract

36. Homan GF, Davies M, Norman R. The impact of lifestyle factors on reproductive performance in the general population and those undergoing infertility treatment: a review. Hum Reprod Update. 2007 May-Jun;13(3):209-23.Full text  Abstract

37. Bolumar F, Olsen J, Rebagliato M, et al. Caffeine intake and delayed conception: a European multicenter study on infertility and subfecundity. European Study Group on Infertility Subfecundity. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb 15;145(4):324-34. Abstract

38. Hassan MA, Killick SR. Negative lifestyle is associated with a significant reduction in fecundity. Fertil Steril. 2004 Feb;81(2):384-92. Abstract

39. Signorello LB, McLaughlin JK. Maternal caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion: a review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology. 2004 Mar;15(2):229-39. Abstract

40. Cwikel J, Gidron Y, Sheiner E. Psychological interactions with infertility among women. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2004 Dec 1;117(2):126-31. Abstract

41. Downey J, McKinney M. The psychiatric status of females presenting for infertility evaluation. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 1992 Apr;62(2):196-205. Abstract

42. Cousinea TM, Green TC, Corsini EA, et al. Development and validation of the Infertility Self-Efficacy Scale. Fertil Steril. 2006 Jun;85(6):1684-96. Abstract

43. Hjollund NH, Jensen TK, Bonde JP, et al. Distress and reduced fertility: a follow-up study of first-pregnancy planners. Fertil Steril. 1999 Jul;72(1):47-53. Abstract

44. Domar AD, Clapp D, Slawsby EA, et al. Impact of group psychological interventions on pregnancy rates in infertile women. Fertil Steril. 2000 Apr;73(4):805-11. Abstract

45. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Fertility problems: assessment and treatment. September 2017 [internet publication].Full text

46. Meyer JD, McDiarmid M, Diaz JH, et al. Reproductive and developmental hazard management. J Occup Environ Med. 2016 Mar;58(3):e94-e102.Full text  Abstract

47. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2015 Jun;103(6):e44-50.Full text  Abstract

48. Eichener SF, Timpe EM. Urinary-based ovulation and pregnancy: point-of-care testing. Ann Pharmacother. 2004 Feb;38(2):325-31. Abstract

49. Coutifaris C, Myers ER, Guzick DS, et al. Histological dating of timed endometrial biopsy tissue is not related to fertility status. Fertil Steril. 2004 Nov;82(5):1264-72. Abstract

50. Mohiyiddeen L, Hardiman A, Fitzgerald C, et al. Tubal flushing for subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 May 1;(5):CD003718. Abstract

51. Saunders RD, Shwayder JM, Nakajima ST. Current methods of tubal patency assessment. Fertil Steril. 2011 Jun;95(7):2171-9. Abstract

52. Sylvestre C, Child TJ, Tulandi T, et al. A prospective study to evaluate the efficacy of two- and three-dimensional sonohysterography in women with intrauterine lesions. Fertil Steril. 2003 May;79(5):1222-5. Abstract

53. Coyne L, Jayaprakasan K, Raine-Fenning N. 3D ultrasound in gynecology and reproductive medicine. Womens Health (Lond Engl). 2008 Sep;4(5):501-16. Abstract

54. Pellerito JS, McCarthy SM, Doyle MB, et al. Diagnosis of uterine anomalies: relative accuracy of MR imaging, endovaginal sonography, and hysterosalpingography. Radiology. 1992 Jun;183(3):795-800. Abstract

55. Olpin JD, Heilbrun M. Imaging of Mullerian duct anomalies. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Mar;52(1):40-56. Abstract

56. Bosteels J, Weyers S, Puttemans P, et al. The effectiveness of hysteroscopy in improving pregnancy rates in subfertile women without other gynaecological symptoms: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2010 Jan-Feb;16(1):1-11.Full text  Abstract

57. El-Toukhy T, Campo R, Khalaf Y, et al. Hysteroscopy in recurrent in-vitro fertilisation failure (TROPHY): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Jun 25;387(10038):2614-21. Abstract

58. Domingues TS, Rocha AM, Serafini PC. Tests for ovarian reserve: reliability and utility. Curr Opinion Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;22(4):271-6. Abstract

59. La Marca A, Sighinolfi G, Radi D, et al. Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) as a predictive marker in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Hum Reprod Update. 2010 Mar-Apr;16(2):113-30.Full text  Abstract

60. Maheshwari A, Bhattacharya S, Johnson NP. Predicting fertility. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2008 Jun;11(2):109-17. Abstract

61. Broekmans FJ, Kwee J, Hendriks DJ, et al. A systematic review of tests predicting ovarian reserve and IVF outcome. Hum Reprod Update. 2006 Nov-Dec;12(6):685-718.Full text  Abstract

62. Keltz MD, Olive DL, Kim AH, et al. Sonohysterography for screening in recurrent pregnancy loss. Fertil Steril. 1997 Apr;67(4):670-4. Abstract

63. Nieuwenhuis LL, Hermans FJ, Bij de Vaate AJM, et al. Three-dimensional saline infusion sonography compared to two-dimensional saline infusion sonography for the diagnosis of focal intracavitary lesions. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 5;5:CD011126.Full text  Abstract

64. Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Definitions of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2020 Mar;113(3):533-5.Full text  Abstract

65. Balen AH, Anderson RA; Policy & Practice Committee of the BFS. Impact of obesity on female reproductive health: British Fertility Society Practice and Policy Guidelines. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2007 Dec;10(4):195-206. Abstract

66. Anderson K, Norman RJ, Middleton P. Preconception lifestyle advice for people with subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Apr 14;(4):CD008189.Full text  Abstract

67. Ahmad G, Watson A, Vanderkerchove P, et al. Techniques for pelvic surgery in subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Apr 19;(2):CD000221. Abstract

68. Pritts EA. Letrozole for ovulation induction and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Aug;22(4):289-94. Abstract

69. Polyzos NP, Tzioras S, Badawy AM, et al. Aromatase inhibitors for female infertility: a systematic review of the literature. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009 Oct;19(4):456-71. Abstract

70. He D, Jiang F. Meta-analysis of letrozole versus clomiphene citrate in polycystic ovary syndrome. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011 Jul;23(1):91-6.Full text  Abstract

71. Franik S, Eltrop SM, Kremer JA, et al. Aromatase inhibitors (letrozole) for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 May 24;5:CD010287.Full text  Abstract

72. Eckmann KR, Kockler DR. Aromatase inhibitors for ovulation and pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome. Ann Pharmacother. 2009 Jul;43(7):1338-46. Abstract

73. Requena AH, Herrero J, Landeras J, et al. Use of letrozole in assisted reproduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):571-82.Full text  Abstract

74. van Wely M, Kwan I, Burt AL, et al. Recombinant versus urinary gonadotrophin for ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology cycles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Feb 16;(2):CD005354. Abstract

75. van Rumste MME, Custers IM, van der Veen et al. The influence of the number of follicles on pregnancy rates in intrauterine insemination with ovarian stimulation: a meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2008 Nov-Dec;14(6):563-70.Full text  Abstract

76. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. National summary report 2014. April 2018 [internet publication].Full text

77. Cousineau T, Domar A. Psychological impact of infertility. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2007 Apr;21(2):293-308. Abstract

78. Hämmerli K, Znoj H, Barth J. The efficacy of psychological interventions for infertile patients: a meta-analysis examining mental health and pregnancy rate. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 May-Jun;15(3):279-95.Full text  Abstract

79. Verkuijlen J, Verhaak C, Nelen WL, et al. Psychological and educational interventions for subfertile men and women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Mar 31;3:CD011034.Full text  Abstract

80. Smithson DS, Vause TDR, Cheung AP. No. 362-Ovulation induction in polycystic ovary syndrome. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2018 Jul;40(7):978-87.Full text  Abstract

81. Nestler JE, Jakubowicz DJ, Evans WS, et al. Effects of metformin on spontaneous and clomiphene-induced ovulation in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1998 Jun 25;338(26):1876-80. Abstract

82. Misso ML, Costello MF, Garrubba M, et al. Metformin versus clomiphene citrate for infertility in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2013 Jan-Feb;19(1):2-11. Abstract

83. Johnson N. Metformin is a reasonable first-line treatment option for non-obese women with infertility related to anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome - a meta-analysis of randomised trials. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2011 Apr;51(2):125-9. Abstract

84. Morley LC, Tang T, Yasmin E, et al. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, D-chiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Nov 29;11:CD003053.Full text  Abstract

85. Thessaloniki ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Consensus on infertility treatment related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2008 Mar;89(3):505-22. Abstract

86. Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists. Metformin therapy for the management of infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: scientific impact paper No. 13. BJOG. 2017 Nov;124(12):e306-e313.Full text  Abstract

87. Bordewijk EM, Ng KYB, Rakic L, et al. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Feb 11;2:CD001122.Full text  Abstract

88. Fernandez H, Morin-Surruca M, Torre A, et al. Ovarian drilling for surgical treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome: a comprehensive review. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011 Jun;22(6):556-68.Full text  Abstract

89. Chua SJ, Akande VA, Mol BW. Surgery for tubal infertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jan 23;1:CD006415.Full text  Abstract

90. Johnson N, van Voorst S, Sowter MC, et al. Surgical treatment for tubal disease in women due to undergo in vitro fertilisation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD002125. Abstract

91. Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, et al. Ovulation suppression for endometriosis for women with subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD000155.Full text  Abstract

92. Duffy JM, Arambage K, Correa FJ, et al. Laparoscopic surgery for endometriosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD011031.Full text  Abstract

93. Hart RJ, Hickey M, Maouris P, et al. Excisional surgery versus ablative surgery for ovarian endometriomata. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(2):CD004992.Full text  Abstract

94. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Clinical practice guideline - endometriosis: diagnosis and management. July 2010 [internet publication].Full text

95. Tsoumpou I, Kyrgiou M, Gelbaya TA, et al. The effect of surgical treatment for endometrioma on in vitro fertilization outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2009 Jul;92(1):75-87. Abstract

96. Benschop L, Farquhar C, van der Poel N, et al. Interventions for women with endometrioma prior to assisted reproductive technology. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Nov 10;(11):CD008571.Full text  Abstract

97. Saraswat L, Ayansina DT, Cooper KG, et al. Pregnancy outcomes in women with endometriosis: a national record linkage study. BJOG. 2017 Feb;124(3):444-52. Abstract

98. Liu KE, Case A. No. 346 - advanced reproductive age and fertility. J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 2017 Aug;39(8):685-95. Abstract

99. ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Intrauterine insemination. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 May-Jun;15(3):265-77.Full text  Abstract

100. Steures P, van der Steeg JW, Hompes PG, et al. Intra-uterine insemination with controlled ovarian hyperstimulation compared to an expectant management in couples with unexplained subfertility and an intermediate prognosis: a randomised study [in Dutch]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2008 Jul 5;152(27):1525-31. Abstract

101. Bhattacharya S, Harrild K, Mollison J, et al. Clomifene citrate or unstimulated intrauterine insemination compared with expectant management for unexplained infertility: Pragmatic randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008 Aug 7;337:a716.Full text  Abstract

102. Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, et al. Clomiphene citrate for unexplained subfertility in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD000057. Abstract

103. Ayeleke RO, Asseler JD, Cohlen BJ, et al. Intra-uterine insemination for unexplained subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 3;3:CD001838.Full text  Abstract

104. Pandian Z, Gibreel A, Bhattacharya S. In vitro fertilisation for unexplained subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Nov 19;(11):CD003357Full text  Abstract

105. Nieuwenhuis-Ruifrok AE, Kuchenbecker WK, Hoek A, et al. Insulin sensitizing drugs for weight loss in women of reproductive age who are overweight or obese: systematic review and meta-analysis. Hum Reprod Update. 2009 Jan-Feb;15(1):57-68.Full text  Abstract

106. Custers IM, van Rumste MM, van der Steeg JW, et al. Long-term outcome in couples with unexplained subfertility and an intermediate prognosis initially randomized between expectant management and immediate treatment. Hum Reprod. 2012 Feb;27(2):444-50. Abstract

107. Practice Committees of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Mature oocyte cryopreservation: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2013 Jan;99(1):37-43.Full text  Abstract

108. Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA). Fertility treatment 2014. Trends and figures. March 2016 [internet publication].Full text

109. Anderson RA, Pickering S. The current status of preimplantation screening: British Fertility Society Practice and Policy Guidelines. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2008 Jun;11(2):71-5. Abstract

110. Harton GL, Magli MC, Lundin K, et al. ESHRE PGD Consortium/Embryology Special Interest Group - best practice guidelines for polar body and embryo biopsy for preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS). Hum Reprod. 2011 Jan;26(1):41-6.Full text  Abstract

111. Brännström M, Johannesson L, Bokström H, et al. Livebirth after uterus transplantation. Lancet. 2015 Feb 14;385(9968):607-16. Abstract

112. Hull MG, Glazener CM, Kelly NJ, et al. Population study of causes, treatment, and outcome of infertility. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1985 Dec 14;291(6510):1693-7. Abstract

113. Homburg R. Clomiphene citrate - end of an era? A mini-review. Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2043-51.Full text  Abstract

114. Dickey RP. Strategies to reduce multiple pregnancies due to ovulation stimulation. Fertil Steril. 2009 Jan;91(1):1-17. Abstract

115. Zivi E, Simon A, Laufer N. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: definition, incidence, and classification. Semin Reprod Med. 2010 Nov;28(6):441-7. Abstract

116. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Multiple pregnancy following assisted reproduction. January 2011 [internet publication].Full text

117. Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Joint SOGC-CFAS clinical practice guideline: elective single embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization. April 2010 [internet publication].Full text

118. Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Criteria for number of embryos to transfer: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013 Jan;99(1):44-6.Full text  Abstract

119. Kashyap S, Moher D, Fung MF, et al. Assisted reproductive technology and the incidence of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Apr;103(4):785-94. Abstract

120. Brinton LA, Lamb EJ, Moghissi KS, et al. Ovarian cancer risk after the use of ovulation-stimulating drugs. Obstet Gynecol. 2004 Jun;103(6):1194-203. Abstract

121. Kallen B, Finnstrom O, Lindam A, et al. Malignancies among women who gave birth after in vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 2011 Jan;26(1):253-8.Full text  Abstract

122. Gelbaya TA. Short and long-term risks to women who conceive through in vitro fertilization. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2010 Mar;13(1):19-27. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer