Bipolar disorder in adults

References

Key articles

McIntyre RS, Nguyen HT, Soczynska JK, et al. Medical and substance-related comorbidity in bipolar disorder: translational research and treatment opportunities. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(2):203-13.Full text  Abstract

Muzina DJ. Bipolar spectrum disorder: differential diagnosis and treatment. Prim Care. 2007 Sep;34(3):521-50;vi. Abstract

Hirschfeld RM, Calabrese JR, Weissman MM, et al. Screening for bipolar disorder in the community. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;64(1):53-9. Abstract

US Preventive Services Task Force. Depression in adults: screening. Jan 2016 [internet publication].Full text

Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2018 Mar;20(2):97-170.Full text  Abstract

McIntyre RS, Cohen M, Zhao J, et al. Asenapine for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: a double-blind 40-week extension study. J Affect Disord. 2010 Nov;126(3):358-65. Abstract

Muzina DJ. What physicians can do to prevent suicide. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Mar;71(3):242-50. Abstract

Reference articles

1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th ed. (DSM-5). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.

2. McIntyre RS, Konarski JZ, Yatham LN. Comorbidity in bipolar disorder: a framework for rational treatment selection. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2004 Aug;19(6):369-86. Abstract

3. Preti A, Vrublevska J, Veroniki AA, et al. Prevalence and treatment of panic disorder in bipolar disorder: systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2018 May;21(2):53-60. Abstract

4. Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, et al. Global and regional burden of disease and risk factors, 2001: systematic analysis of population health data. Lancet. 2006 May 27;367(9524):1747-57. Abstract

5. Cloutier M, Greene M, Guerin A, et al. The economic burden of bipolar I disorder in the United States in 2015. J Affect Disord. 2018 Jan 15;226:45-51.Full text  Abstract

6. Merikangas KR, Akiskal HS, Angst J, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorder in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May;64(5):543-52. [Erratum in: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;64(9):1039.]Full text  Abstract

7. Merikangas KR, Jin R, He JP, et al. Prevalence and correlates of bipolar spectrum disorder in the world mental health survey initiative. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;68(3):241-51.Full text  Abstract

8. Cerimele JM, Chwastiak LA, Dodson S, et al. The prevalence of bipolar disorder in general primary care samples: a systematic review. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2014 Jan-Feb;36(1):19-25.Full text  Abstract

9. Sharma V, Doobay M, Baczynski C. Bipolar postpartum depression: an update and recommendations. J Affect Disord. 2017 Sep;219:105-11. Abstract

10. Hirschfeld RM, Lewis L, Vornik LA. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder: how far have we really come? Results of the national depressive and manic-depressive association 2000 survey of individuals with bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Feb;64(2):161-74. Abstract

11. Dagani J, Signorini G, Nielssen O, et al. Meta-analysis of the interval between the onset and management of bipolar disorder. Can J Psychiatry. 2017 Apr;62(4):247-58.Full text  Abstract

12. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Bipolar disorder: assessment and management. Feb 2020 [internet publication].Full text

13. Goodwin FK, Jamison KR. Manic-depressive illness: bipolar disorders and recurrent depression. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

14. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, et al. The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jun;59(6):530-7.Full text  Abstract

15. Slama F, Bellivier F, Henry C, et al. Bipolar patients with suicidal behavior: toward the identification of a clinical subgroup. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Aug;65(8):1035-9. Abstract

16. Compton WM, Thomas YF, Stinson FS, et al. Prevalence, correlates, disability, and comorbidity of DSM-IV drug abuse and dependence in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 May;64(5):566-76.Full text  Abstract

17. Preti A, Vrublevska J, Veroniki AA, et al. Prevalence, impact and treatment of generalised anxiety disorder in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Evid Based Ment Health. 2016 Aug;19(3):73-81.Full text  Abstract

18. Baum AE, Akula N, Cabanero M, et al. A genome-wide association study implicates diacylglycerol kinase eta (DGKH) and several other genes in the etiology of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2008 Feb;13(2):197-207.Full text  Abstract

19. Craddock N, Sklar P. Genetics of bipolar disorder: successful start to a long journey. Trends Genet. 2009 Feb;25(2):99-105. Abstract

20. Psychiatric GWAS Consortium Bipolar Disorder Working Group. Large-scale genome-wide association analysis of bipolar disorder identifies a new susceptibility locus near ODZ4. Nat Genet. 2011 Sep 18;43(10):977-83.Full text  Abstract

21. Nurnberger JI Jr, Koller DL, Jung J, et al; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Bipolar Group. Identification of pathways for bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry. 2014 Jun;71(6):657-64.Full text  Abstract

22. Marshe VS, Pira S, Mantere O, et al. C-reactive protein and cardiovascular risk in bipolar disorder patients: a systematic review. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2017 Oct 3;79(Pt b):442-51. Abstract

23. Kempton MJ, Salvador Z, Munafò MR, et al. Structural neuroimaging studies in major depressive disorder. Meta-analysis and comparison with bipolar disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;68(7):675-90.Full text  Abstract

24. Adler CM, DelBello MP, Jarvis K, et al. Voxel-based study of structural changes in first-episode patients with bipolar disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Mar 15;61(6):776-81. Abstract

25. Hibar DP, Westlye LT, Doan NT, et al. Cortical abnormalities in bipolar disorder: an MRI analysis of 6503 individuals from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group. Mol Psychiatry. 2018 Apr;23(4):932-42.Full text  Abstract

26. Selvaraj S, Arnone D, Job D, et al. Grey matter differences in bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies. Bipolar Disord. 2012 Mar;14(2):135-45. Abstract

27. Phillips ML, Ladouceur CD, Drevets WC. A neural model of voluntary and automatic emotion regulation: implications for understanding the pathophysiology and neurodevelopment of bipolar disorder. Mol Psychiatry. 2008 Sep;13(9):829, 833-57.Full text  Abstract

28. Kraguljac NV, Reid M, White D, et al. Neurometabolites in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Res. 2012 Aug-Sep;203(2-3):111-25.Full text  Abstract

29. Akiskal HS, Benazzi F. The DSM-IV and ICD-10 categories of recurrent (major) depressive and bipolar II disorders: evidence that they lie on a dimensional spectrum. J Affect Disord. 2006 May;92(1):45-54. Abstract

30. Muzina DJ, Kemp DE, Yatham LN, et al. Bipolar depression: diagnosis and treatment. In: Yatham LN and Kusumakar V, eds. Bipolar disorder: a clinician's guide to treatment management. New York, NY: Routledge; 2009.

31. Coryell W, Endicott J, Maser JD, et al. Long-term stability of polarity distinctions in the affective disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar;152(3):385-90. Abstract

32. Kupfer DJ, Frank E, Grochocinski VJ, et al. Demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals in a bipolar disorder case registry. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Feb;63(2):120-5. Abstract

33. Lewinsohn PM, Klein DN, Seeley JR. Bipolar disorder during adolescence and young adulthood in a community sample. Bipolar Disord. 2000 Sep;2(3 Pt 2):281-93. Abstract

34. Alloy LB, Abramson LY, Urosevic S, et al. The psychosocial context of bipolar disorder: environmental, cognitive, and developmental risk factors. Clin Psychol Rev. 2005 Dec;25(8):1043-75. Abstract

35. Grant BF, Stinson FS, Hasin DS, et al. Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. J Clin Psychiatry. 2005 Oct;66(10):1205-15. Abstract

36. Pavlova B, Perlis RH, Alda M, et al. Lifetime prevalence of anxiety disorders in people with bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2015 Aug;2(8):710-17. Abstract

37. Otto MW, Simon NM, Wisniewski SR, et al. Prospective 12-month course of bipolar disorder in out-patients with and without comorbid anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2006 Jul;189:20-5.Full text  Abstract

38. McIntyre RS, Nguyen HT, Soczynska JK, et al. Medical and substance-related comorbidity in bipolar disorder: translational research and treatment opportunities. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(2):203-13.Full text  Abstract

39. Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Houck PR, et al. Obesity as a correlate of outcome in patients with bipolar I disorder. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;160(1):112-7.Full text  Abstract

40. Fagiolini A, Kupfer DJ, Rucci P, et al. Suicide attempts and ideation in patients with bipolar I disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;65(4):509-14. Abstract

41. Elmslie JL, Silverstone JT, Mann JI, et al. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Mar;61(3):179-84. Abstract

42. Bartels SJ, Pratt SI, Aschbrenner KA, et al. Pragmatic replication trial of health promotion coaching for obesity in serious mental illness and maintenance of outcomes. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Apr;172(4):344-52.Full text  Abstract

43. Ayerbe L, Forgnone I, Addo J, et al. Hypertension risk and clinical care in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia; a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2018 Jan 1;225:665-70. Abstract

44. Fornaro M, Orsolini L, Marini S, et al. The prevalence and predictors of bipolar and borderline personality disorders comorbidity: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2016 May;195:105-18. Abstract

45. Schiavone P, Dorz S, Conforti D, et al. Comorbidity of DSM-IV personality disorders in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders: a comparative study. Psychol Rep. 2004 Aug;95(1):121-8. Abstract

46. Mantere O, Melartin TK, Suominen K, et al. Differences in Axis I and II comorbidity between bipolar I and II disorders and major depressive disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Apr;67(4):584-93. Abstract

47. Muzina DJ. Bipolar spectrum disorder: differential diagnosis and treatment. Prim Care. 2007 Sep;34(3):521-50;vi. Abstract

48. Muzina DJ, Kemp DE, McIntyre RS. Differentiating bipolar disorders from major depressive disorders: treatment implications. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2007 Oct-Dec;19(4):305-12. Abstract

49. Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Kroenke K, et al. Utility of a new procedure for diagnosing mental disorders in primary care: the PRIME-MD 1000 study. JAMA. 1994 Dec 14;272(22):1749-56. Abstract

50. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB; Patient Health Questionnaire Primary Care Study Group. Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. JAMA. 1999 Nov 10;282(18):1737-44.Full text  Abstract

51. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The patient health questionnaire-2: validity of a two-item depression screener. Med Care. 2003 Nov;41(11):1284-92. Abstract

52. Hirschfeld RM, Calabrese JR, Weissman MM, et al. Screening for bipolar disorder in the community. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Jan;64(1):53-9. Abstract

53. Sachs GS. Strategies for improving treatment of bipolar disorder: integration of measurement and management. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2004;(422):7-17. Abstract

54. Young RC, Biggs JT, Ziegler VE, et al. A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity. Br J Psychiatry. 1978 Nov;133:429-35. Abstract

55. De Crescenzo F, Economou A, Sharpley AL, et al. Actigraphic features of bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sleep Med Rev. 2017 Jun;33:58-69. Abstract

56. Ghaemi SN, Boiman EE, Goodwin FK. Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of antidepressants: a naturalistic study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Oct;61(10):804-8;quiz 809. Abstract

57. Goldberg JF, Ernst CL. Features associated with the delayed initiation of mood stabilizers at illness onset in bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;63(11):985-91. Abstract

58. Birnbaum HG, Shi L, Dial E, et al. Economic consequences of not recognizing bipolar disorder patients: a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2003 Oct;64(10):1201-9. Abstract

59. US Preventive Services Task Force. Depression in adults: screening. Jan 2016 [internet publication].Full text

60. Nassir Ghaemi S, Miller CJ, Berv DA, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of a new bipolar spectrum diagnostic scale. J Affect Disord. 2005 Feb;84(2-3):273-7. Abstract

61. Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH, et al. The mini-international neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiatry. 1998;59 (Suppl 20):22-33. Abstract

62. Muzina DJ, Calabrese JR. Guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder. In: Stein DJ, Kupfer DJ, Schatzberg AF, eds. The textbook of mood disorders. 1st ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2006:439-62.

63. Goodwin GM, Haddad PM, Ferrier IN, et al. Evidence-based guidelines for treating bipolar disorder: revised third edition recommendations from the British Association for Psychopharmacology. J Psychopharmacol. 2016 Jun;30(6):495-553.Full text  Abstract

64. Bschor T, Pfennig A, Sasse G. S3-guidelines on diagnostics and therapy of bipolar disorders. Pharmacotherapy. Psychopharmakotherapie. 2012;19:265-70.

65. Garriga M, Pacchiarotti I, Kasper S, et al. Assessment and management of agitation in psychiatry: expert consensus. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2016;17(2):86-128. Abstract

66. Fountoulakis KN, Grunze H, Vieta E, et al. The International College of Neuro-Psychopharmacology (CINP) treatment guidelines for bipolar disorder in adults (CINP-BD-2017), Part 3: the clinical guidelines. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2017 Feb 1;20(2):180-95.Full text  Abstract

67. Hidalgo-Mazzei D, Berk M, Cipriani A, et al. Treatment-resistant and multi-therapy-resistant criteria for bipolar depression: consensus definition. Br J Psychiatry. 2019 Jan;214(1):27-35.Full text  Abstract

68. Yatham LN, Kennedy SH, Parikh SV, et al. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) 2018 guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2018 Mar;20(2):97-170.Full text  Abstract

69. Sachs GS, Grossman F, Ghaemi SN, et al. Combination of a mood stabilizer with risperidone or haloperidol for treatment of acute mania: a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of efficacy and safety. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jul;159(7):1146-54.Full text  Abstract

70. Müller-Oerlinghausen B, Retzow A, Henn FA, et al. Valproate as an adjunct to neuroleptic medication for the treatment of acute episodes of mania: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. European Valproate Mania Study Group. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000 Apr;20(2):195-203. Abstract

71. Tohen M, Chengappa KN, Suppes T, et al. Efficacy of olanzapine in combination with valproate or lithium in the treatment of mania in patients partially nonresponsive to valproate or lithium monotherapy. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2002 Jan;59(1):62-9.Full text  Abstract

72. Sachs G, Chengappa KN, Suppes T, et al. Quetiapine with lithium or divalproex for the treatment of bipolar mania: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Bipolar Disord. 2004 Jun;6(3):213-23. Abstract

73. McKnight RF, de La Motte de Broöns de Vauvert SJGN, Chesney E, et al. Lithium for acute mania. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Jun 1;(6):CD004048.Full text  Abstract

74. Malhi GS, Tanious M, Das P, et al. The science and practice of lithium therapy. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2012 Mar;46(3):192-211. Abstract

75. Jochim J, Rifkin-Zybutz RP, Geddes J, et al. Valproate for acute mania. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2019 Oct 7;(10):CD004052.Full text  Abstract

76. European Medicines Agency. New measures to avoid valproate exposure in pregnancy endorsed. Mar 2018 [internet publication].Full text

77. Perugi G, Medda P, Toni C, et al. The role of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in bipolar disorder: effectiveness in 522 patients with bipolar depression, mixed-state, mania and catatonic features. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2017 Apr;15(3):359-71.Full text  Abstract

78. Valenti M, Benabarre A, Garcia-Amador M, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy in the treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder. Eur Psychiatry. 2008 Jan;23(1):53-6. Abstract

79. Pacchiarotti I, Bond DJ, Baldessarini RJ, et al. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) task force report on antidepressant use in bipolar disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Nov;170(11):1249-62.Full text  Abstract

80. Betzler F, Stöver LA, Sterzer P, et al. Mixed states in bipolar disorder: changes in DSM-5 and current treatment recommendations. Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2017 Nov;21(4):244-58. Abstract

81. Vieta E, Suppes T, Ekholm B, et al. Long-term efficacy of quetiapine in combination with lithium or divalproex on mixed symptoms in bipolar I disorder. J Affect Disord. 2012 Dec 15;142(1-3):36-44. Abstract

82. McIntyre RS, Yoon J. Efficacy of antimanic treatments in mixed states. Bipolar Disord. 2012 May;14 (Suppl 2):22-36. Abstract

83. Fountoulakis KN, Kontis D, Gonda X, et al. Treatment of mixed bipolar states. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Aug;15(7):1015-26.Full text  Abstract

84. Sidor MM, MacQueen GM. Antidepressants for the acute treatment of bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;72(2):156-67. Abstract

85. Muzina DJ, Kemp DE, Calabrese JR. Mood stabilizers. In: Tasman A, Kay J, Lieberman JA, et al, eds. Psychiatry. 3rd ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons; 2008.

86. Sachs GS, Nierenberg AA, Calabrese JR, et al. Effectiveness of adjunctive antidepressant treatment for bipolar depression. N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 26;356(17):1711-22.Full text  Abstract

87. McGirr A, Vöhringer PA, Ghaemi SN, et al. Safety and efficacy of adjunctive second-generation antidepressant therapy with a mood stabiliser or an atypical antipsychotic in acute bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Dec;3(12):1138-46. Abstract

88. Geddes JR, Calabrese JR, Goodwin GM. Lamotrigine for treatment of bipolar depression: independent meta-analysis and meta-regression of individual patient data from five randomised trials. Br J Psychiatry. 2009 Jan;194(1):4-9.Full text  Abstract

89. Loebel A, Cucchiaro J, Silva R, et al. Lurasidone monotherapy in the treatment of bipolar I depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;171(2):160-8.Full text  Abstract

90. Kemp DE, Ganocy SJ, Brecher M, et al. Clinical value of early partial symptomatic improvement in the prediction of response and remission during short-term treatment trials in 3369 subjects with bipolar I or II depression. J Affect Disord. 2011 Apr;130(1-2):171-9.Full text  Abstract

91. Tohen M, Vieta E, Calabrese J, et al. Efficacy of olanzapine and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination in the treatment of bipolar I depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Nov;60(11):1079-88.Full text  Abstract

92. Yatham LN, Vieta E, Durgam S, et al. Efficacy of cariprazine in bipolar depression: post hoc band‐pass analyses of 2 randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trials. Atlanta, Georgia: American Psychiatric Association Annual Meeting; 2016.

93. Yatham LN. A clinical review of aripiprazole in bipolar depression and maintenance therapy of bipolar disorder. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jan;128(suppl 1):S21-8. Abstract

94. Dunn RT, Stan VA, Chriki LS, et al. A prospective, open-label study of aripiprazole mono- and adjunctive treatment in acute bipolar depression. J Affect Disord. 2008 Sep;110(1-2):70-4. Abstract

95. Calabrese JR, Ketter TA, Youakim JM, et al. Adjunctive armodafinil for major depressive episodes associated with bipolar I disorder: a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2010 Oct;71(10):1363-70. Abstract

96. McIntyre RS, Lee Y, Zhou AJ, et al. The efficacy of psychostimulants in major depressive episodes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2017 Aug;37(4):412-8. Abstract

97. Berk M, Tiller JW, Zhao J, et al. Effects of asenapine in bipolar I patients meeting proxy criteria for moderate-to-severe mixed major depressive episodes: a post hoc analysis. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jun;76(6):728-34.Full text  Abstract

98. Sarris J, Mischoulon D, Schweitzer I. Omega-3 for bipolar disorder: meta-analyses of use in mania and bipolar depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2012 Jan;73(1):81-6. Abstract

99. Stamm TJ, Lewitzka U, Sauer C, et al. Supraphysiologic doses of levothyroxine as adjunctive therapy in bipolar depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;75(2):162-8. Abstract

100. Bauer M, Berman S, Stamm T, et al. Levothyroxine effects on depressive symptoms and limbic glucose metabolism in bipolar disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled positron emission tomography study. Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;21(2):229-36.Full text  Abstract

101. Frye MA, Grunze H, Suppes T, et al. A placebo-controlled evaluation of adjunctive modafinil in the treatment of bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;164(8):1242-9.Full text  Abstract

102. Goldberg JF, Burdick KE, Endick CJ. Preliminary randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole added to mood stabilizers for treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Mar;161(3):564-6.Full text  Abstract

103. McGirr A, Karmani S, Arsappa R, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in acute bipolar depression. World Psychiatry. 2016 Feb;15(1):85-6.Full text  Abstract

104. Miklowitz DJ, Otto MW, Frank E, et al. Intensive psychosocial intervention enhances functioning in patients with bipolar depression: results from a 9-month randomized controlled trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Sep;164(9):1340-7.Full text  Abstract

105. Miklowitz DJ, Otto MW, Frank E, et al. Psychosocial treatments for bipolar depression: a 1-year randomized trial from the systematic treatment enhancement program. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Apr;64(4):419-26.Full text  Abstract

106. Datto C, Pottorf WJ, Feeley L, et al. Bipolar II compared with bipolar I disorder: baseline characteristics and treatment response to quetiapine in a pooled analysis of five placebo-controlled clinical trials of acute bipolar depression. Ann Gen Psychiatry. 2016 Mar 11;15:9.Full text  Abstract

107. Young AH, Calabrese JR, Gustafsson U, et al. Quetiapine monotherapy in bipolar II depression: combined data from four large, randomized studies. Int J Bipolar Disord. 2013 Jul 4;1:10.Full text  Abstract

108. Jeong JH, Bahk WM, Woo YS, et al. Efficacy of quetiapine in patients with bipolar I and II depression: a multicenter, prospective, open-label, observational study. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2013;9:197-204.Full text  Abstract

109. Ahn YM, Nam JY, Culver JL, et al. Lamotrigine plus quetiapine combination therapy in treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;23(1):17-24. Abstract

110. Altshuler LL, Sugar CA, McElroy SL, et al. Switch rates during acute treatment for bipolar II depression with lithium, sertraline, or the two combined: a randomized double-blind comparison. Am J Psychiatry. 2017 Mar 1;174(3):266-76.Full text  Abstract

111. Amsterdam J. Efficacy and safety of venlafaxine in the treatment of bipolar II major depressive episode. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 1998 Oct;18(5):414-7. Abstract

112. Amsterdam JD, Garcia-España F. Venlafaxine monotherapy in women with bipolar II and unipolar major depression. J Affect Disord. 2000 Sep;59(3):225-9. Abstract

113. Zarate CA, Brutsche NE, Ibrahim L, et al. Replication of ketamine's antidepressant efficacy in bipolar depression: a randomized controlled add-on trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 Jun 1;71(11):939-46.Full text  Abstract

114. McCloud TL, Caddy C, Jochim J, et al. Ketamine and other glutamate receptor modulators for depression in bipolar disorder in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Sep 29;(9):CD011611.Full text  Abstract

115. Short B, Fong J, Galvez V, et al. Side-effects associated with ketamine use in depression: a systematic review. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Jan;5(1):65-78. Abstract

116. Swartz HA, Frank E, Cheng Y. A randomized pilot study of psychotherapy and quetiapine for the acute treatment of bipolar II depression. Bipolar Disord. 2012 Mar;14(2):211-6.Full text  Abstract

117. Fountoulakis KN, Kontis D, Gonda X, et al. A systematic review of the evidence on the treatment of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2013 Mar;15(2):115-37. Abstract

118. Muzina DJ. Pharmacologic treatment of rapid cycling and mixed states in bipolar disorder: an argument for the use of lithium. Bipolar Disord. 2009 Jun;11(suppl 2):84-91. Abstract

119. Rihmer Z. Lithium treatment and the risk of suicide in affective disorders. Eur Psych Review. 2011;4:55-8.

120. Schneider-Thoma J, Efthimiou O, Bighelli I, et al. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs and short-term somatic serious adverse events: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2019 Sep;6(9):753-65. Abstract

121. Viguera AC, Nonacs R, Cohen LS, et al. Risk of recurrence of bipolar disorder in pregnant and nonpregnant women after discontinuing lithium maintenance. Am J Psychiatry. 2000 Feb;157(2):179-84.Full text  Abstract

122. Freeman MP, Smith KW, Freeman SA, et al. The impact of reproductive events on the course of bipolar disorder in women. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Apr;63(4):284-7. Abstract

123. Larsen ER, Saric K. Pregnancy and bipolar disorder: the risk of recurrence when discontinuing treatment with mood stabilisers: a systematic review. Acta Neuropsychiatr. 2017 Oct;29(5):259-66. Abstract

124. Taylor VH, Steiner M, Soares C. Bipolar disorders in women: special issues. In: Yatham LN and Kusumakar V, eds. Bipolar disorder: a clinician's guide to treatment management. New York, NY: Routledge; 2009.

125. Iqbal MM, Sohhan T, Mahmud SZ. The effects of lithium, valproic acid, and carbamazepine during pregnancy and lactation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 2001;39(4):381-92. Abstract

126. Yonkers KA, Wisner KL, Stowe Z, et al. Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 Apr;161(4):608-20.Full text  Abstract

127. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Valproate use by women and girls. May 2020 [internet publication].Full text

128. Viguera AC, Koukopoulos A, Muzina DJ, et al. Teratogenicity and anticonvulsants: lessons from neurology to psychiatry. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68(suppl 9):29-33. Abstract

129. Patorno E, Huybrechts KF, Bateman BT, et al. Lithium use in pregnancy and the risk of cardiac malformations. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jun 8;376(23):2245-54.Full text  Abstract

130. Wesseloo R, Wierdsma AI, van Kamp IL, et al. Lithium dosing strategies during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Br J Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;211(1):31-6. Abstract

131. Munk-Olsen T, Liu X, Viktorin A, et al. Maternal and infant outcomes associated with lithium use in pregnancy: an international collaborative meta-analysis of six cohort studies. Lancet Psychiatry. 2018 Aug;5(8):644-52. Abstract

132. Leiknes KA, Cooke MJ, Jarosch-von Schweder L, et al. Electroconvulsive therapy during pregnancy: a systematic review of case studies. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2015 Feb;18(1):1-39.Full text  Abstract

133. Colom F, Vieta E, Martinez-Aran A, et al. Clinical factors associated with treatment noncompliance in euthymic bipolar patients. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Aug;61(8):549-55. Abstract

134. Sajatovic M, Davies M, Hrouda DR. Enhancement of treatment adherence among patients with bipolar disorder. Psychiatr Serv. 2004 Mar;55(3):264-9.Full text  Abstract

135. Santos Pina L, Bouckaert F, Obbels J, et al. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in severe bipolar disorder: a retrospective chart review. J ECT. 2016 Mar;32(1):23-8. Abstract

136. Batista TA, von Werne Baes C, Juruena MF. Efficacy of psychoeducation in bipolar patients: systematic review of randomized trials. Psychol Neurosci. 2011;4:409-16.Full text

137. Morriss RK, Faizal MA, Jones AP, et al. Interventions for helping people recognise early signs of recurrence in bipolar disorder. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jan 24;(1):CD004854.Full text  Abstract

138. Ball JR, Mitchell PB, Corry JC, et al. A randomized controlled trial of cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder: focus on long-term change. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;67(2):277-86. Abstract

139. Macheiner T, Skavantzos A, Pilz R, et al. A meta-analysis of adjuvant group-interventions in psychiatric care for patients with bipolar disorders. J Affect Disord. 2017 Nov;222:28-31. Abstract

140. Werneke U, Ott M, Renberg ES, et al. A decision analysis of long-term lithium treatment and the risk of renal failure. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2012 Sep;126(3):186-97.Full text  Abstract

141. Miura T, Noma H, Furukawa TA, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of pharmacological treatments in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2014 Oct;1(5):351-9. Abstract

142. Cipriani A, Hawton K, Stockton S, et al. Lithium in the prevention of suicide in mood disorders: updated systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2013 Jun 27;346:f3646.Full text  Abstract

143. Lähteenvuo M, Tanskanen A, Taipale H, et al. Real-world effectiveness of pharmacologic treatments for the prevention of rehospitalization in a Finnish nationwide cohort of patients with bipolar disorder. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Apr 1;75(4):347-55. Abstract

144. Weisler RH, Nolen WA, Neijber A, et al. Continuation of quetiapine versus switching to placebo or lithium for maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder (Trial 144: a randomized controlled study). J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Nov;72(11):1452-64. Abstract

145. McIntyre RS, Cohen M, Zhao J, et al. Asenapine for long-term treatment of bipolar disorder: a double-blind 40-week extension study. J Affect Disord. 2010 Nov;126(3):358-65. Abstract

146. Bowden CL, Calabrese JR, Sachs G, et al. A placebo-controlled 18-month trial of lamotrigine and lithium maintenance treatment in recently manic or hypomanic patients with bipolar I disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;60(4):392-400.Full text  Abstract

147. Yatham LN, Beaulieu S, Schaffer A, et al. Optimal duration of risperidone or olanzapine adjunctive therapy to mood stabilizer following remission of a manic episode: a CANMAT randomized double-blind trial. Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Aug;21(8):1050-6.Full text  Abstract

148. Bond DJ, Pratoomsri W, Yatham LN. Depot antipsychotic medications in bipolar disorder: a review of the literature. Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl. 2007;(434):3-16. Abstract

149. Vieta E, Montgomery S, Sulaiman AH, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess prevention of mood episodes with risperidone long-acting injectable in patients with bipolar I disorder. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012 Nov;22(11):825-35. Abstract

150. Tohen M, Calabrese JR, Sachs GS, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine as maintenance therapy in patients with bipolar I disorder responding to acute treatment with olanzapine. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Feb;163(2):247-56.Full text  Abstract

151. Quiroz JA, Yatham LN, Palumbo JM, et al. Risperidone long-acting injectable monotherapy in the maintenance treatment of bipolar I disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Jul 15;68(2):156-62. Abstract

152. Macfadden W, Alphs L, Haskins JT, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of maintenance treatment with adjunctive risperidone long-acting therapy in patients with bipolar I disorder who relapse frequently. Bipolar Disord. 2009 Dec;11(8):827-39.Full text  Abstract

153. Berwaerts J, Melkote R, Nuamah I, et al. A randomized, placebo- and active-controlled study of paliperidone extended-release as maintenance treatment in patients with bipolar I disorder after an acute manic or mixed episode. J Affect Disord. 2012 May;138(3):247-58. Abstract

154. Carlson BX, Ketter TA, Sun W, et al. Aripiprazole in combination with lamotrigine for the long-term treatment of patients with bipolar I disorder (manic or mixed): a randomized, multicenter, double-blind study (CN138-392). Bipolar Disord. 2012 Feb;14(1):41-53. Abstract

155. Brown E, Dunner DL, McElroy SL, et al. Olanzapine/fluoxetine combination vs. lamotrigine in the 6-month treatment of bipolar I depression. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2009 Jul;12(6):773-82.Full text  Abstract

156. Suppes T, Webb A, Paul B, et al. Clinical outcome in a randomized 1-year trial of clozapine versus treatment as usual for patients with treatment-resistant illness and a history of mania. Am J Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;156(8):1164-9.Full text  Abstract

157. Vieta E, Manuel Goikolea J, Martínez-Arán A, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, prophylaxis study of adjunctive gabapentin for bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2006 Mar;67(3):473-7. Abstract

158. Young AH, McElroy SL, Olausson B, et al. A randomised, placebo-controlled 52-week trial of continued quetiapine treatment in recently depressed patients with bipolar I and bipolar II disorder. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Feb;15(2):96-112. Abstract

159. Kane JM, Quitkin FM, Rifkin A, et al. Lithium carbonate and imipramine in the prophylaxis of unipolar and bipolar II illness: a prospective, placebo-controlled comparison. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1982 Sep;39(9):1065-9. Abstract

160. Amsterdam JD, Lorenzo-Luaces L, Soeller I, et al. Short-term venlafaxine v. lithium monotherapy for bipolar type II major depressive episodes: effectiveness and mood conversion rate. Br J Psychiatry. 2016 Apr;208(4):359-65.Full text  Abstract

161. Calabrese JR, Suppes T, Bowden CL, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, prophylaxis study of lamotrigine in rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. J Clin Psychiatry. 2000 Nov;61(11):841-50. Abstract

162. Dunner DL, Fieve RR. Clinical factors in lithium carbonate prophylaxis failure. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1974 Feb;30(2):229-33. Abstract

163. Tondo L, Baldessarini RJ, Floris G. Long-term clinical effectiveness of lithium maintenance treatment in types I and II bipolar disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2001 Jun;178(suppl 41):S184-90. Abstract

164. Amsterdam JD, Lorenzo-Luaces L, Soeller I, et al. Safety and effectiveness of continuation antidepressant versus mood stabilizer monotherapy for relapse-prevention of bipolar II depression: a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, prospective study. J Affect Disord. 2015 Oct 1;185:31-7.Full text  Abstract

165. Loo CK, Katalinic N, Mitchell PB. Physical treatments for bipolar disorder: a review of electroconvulsive therapy, stereotactic surgery and other brain stimulation techniques. J Affect Disord. 2011 Jul;132(1-2):1-13. Abstract

166. Sampaio-Junior B, Tortella G, Borrione L, et al. Efficacy and safety of transcranial direct current stimulation as an add-on treatment for bipolar depression: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 1;75(2):158-66. Abstract

167. Solomon DA, Leon AC, Coryell WH, et al. Longitudinal course of bipolar I disorder: duration of mood episodes. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010 Apr;67(4):339-47.Full text  Abstract

168. Judd LL, Akiskal HS, Schettler PJ, et al. A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Mar;60(3):261-9.Full text  Abstract

169. Inskip HM, Harris EC, Barraclough B. Lifetime risk of suicide for affective disorder, alcoholism and schizophrenia. Br J Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;172:35-7. Abstract

170. Muzina DJ. What physicians can do to prevent suicide. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004 Mar;71(3):242-50. Abstract

171. Wasserman D, Rihmer Z, Rujescu D, et al. The European Psychiatric Association (EPA) guidance on suicide treatment and prevention. Eur Psychiatry. 2012 Feb;27(2):129-41. Abstract

172. Smith EG, Austin KL, Kim HM, et al. Mortality associated with lithium and valproate treatment of US Veterans Health Administration patients with mental disorders. Br J Psychiatry. 2015 Jul;207(1):55-63. Abstract

173. Bora E. Neurocognitive features in clinical subgroups of bipolar disorder: a meta-analysis. J Affect Disord. 2018 Mar 15;229:125-34. Abstract

174. Clark L, Sahakian BJ. Cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging in bipolar disorder. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2008;10(2):153-63.Full text  Abstract

175. Zwerling C, Whitten PS, Sprince NL, et al. Workforce participation by persons with disabilities: the national health interview survey disability supplement, 1994 to 1995. J Occup Environ Med. 2002 Apr;44(4):358-64. Abstract

176. Olfson M, Fireman B, Weissman MM, et al. Mental disorders and disability among patients in a primary care group practice. Am J Psychiatry. 1997 Dec;154(12):1734-40.Full text  Abstract

177. Ray WA, Chung CP, Murray KT, et al. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and the risk of sudden cardiac death. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 15;360(3):225-35.Full text  Abstract

178. Michelsen JW, Meyer JM. Cardiovascular effects of antipsychotics. Expert Rev Neurother. 2007 Jul;7(7):829-39. Abstract

179. Musil R, Obermeier M, Russ P, et al. Weight gain and antipsychotics: a drug safety review. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2015 Jan;14(1):73-96. Abstract

180. Martens F. Lithium intoxication: signs and treatment. In: Bauer M, Grof P, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, eds. Lithium in psychiatry - the comprehensive guide. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis; 2006:491-500.

181. Pogarell O, Folkerts M, Hegerl U. Adverse neurological and neurotoxic effects of lithium therapy. In: Bauer M, Grof P, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, eds. Lithium in psychiatry - the comprehensive guide. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis; 2006:271-82.

182. Schou M, Kampf D. Lithium and the kidneys. In: Bauer M, Grof P, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, eds. Lithium in psychiatry - the comprehensive guide. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis; 2006:251-8.

183. Lazarus JH, Kirov G, Harris BB. Effect of lithium on the thyroid and endocrine glands. In: Bauer M, Grof P, Muller-Oerlinghausen B, eds. Lithium in psychiatry - the comprehensive guide. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis; 2006:259-70.

184. Nanau RM, Neuman MG. Adverse drug reactions induced by valproic acid. Clin Biochem. 2013 Oct;46(15):1323-38. Abstract

185. Bertolino JG. Carbamazepine. What physicians should know about its hematologic effects. Postgrad Med. 1990 Jul;88(1):183-6. Abstract

186. Calabrese JR, Sullivan JR, Bowden CL, et al. Rash in multicenter trials of lamotrigine in mood disorders: clinical relevance and management. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002 Nov;63(11):1012-9. Abstract

187. Physician's Desk Reference. Lamictal (lamotrigine): full prescribing information. May 2015 [internet publication].Full text

188. Faustino PR, Duarte GS, Chendo I, et al. Risk of developing Parkinson disease in bipolar disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2020 Feb 1;77(2):192-8. Abstract

Use of this content is subject to our disclaimer