Antiphospholipid syndrome


Key articles

Rand JH, Wu XX, Lapinski R, et al. Detection of antibody-mediated reduction of annexin A5 anticoagulant activity in plasmas of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood. 2004 Nov 1;104(9):2783-90. Abstract

Pengo V, Tripodi A, Reber G, et al. Update of the guidelines for lupus anticoagulant detection. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Oct;7(10):1737-40.Full text  Abstract

Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin No. 132: antiphospholipid syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Dec;120(6):1514-21. Abstract

Reference articles

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2. Shi W, Krilis SA, Chong BH, et al. Prevalence of lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies in a healthy population. Aust N Z J Med. 1990 Jun;20(3):231-6. Abstract

3. Petri M. Epidemiology of the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. J Autoimmun. 2000 Sep;15(2):145-51. Abstract

4. Lim W, Crowther MA, Eikelboom JW. Management of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a systematic review. JAMA. 2006 Mar 1;295(9):1050-7.Full text  Abstract

5. Erkan D, Lockshin MD. What is antiphospholipid syndrome? Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2004 Dec;6(6):451-7. Abstract

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8. Jara LJ, Medina G, Vera-Lastra O, et al. The impact of gender on clinical manifestations of primary antiphospholipid syndrome. Lupus. 2005;14(8):607-12. Abstract

9. Meroni PL, Borghi MO, Raschi E, et al. Pathogenesis of antiphospholipid syndrome: understanding the antibodies. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2011 Jun;7(6):330-9. Abstract

10. Mehdi AA, Uthman I, Khamashta M. Antiphospholipid syndrome: pathogenesis and a window of treatment opportunities in the future. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 May;40(5):451-64. Abstract

11. Giannakopoulos B, Krilis SA. The pathogenesis of the antiphospholipid syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2013 Mar 14;368(11):1033-44. Abstract

12. de Laat B, Derksen RH, Urbanus RT, et al. IgG antibodies that recognize epitope Gly40-Arg43 in domain I of beta 2-glycoprotein I cause LAC, and their presence correlates strongly with thrombosis. Blood. 2005 Feb 15;105(4):1540-5. Abstract

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14. Malia RG, Kitchen S, Greaves M, et al. Inhibition of activated protein C and its cofactor protein S by antiphospholipid antibodies. Br J Haematol. 1990 Sep;76(1):101-7. Abstract

15. Erkan D, Lockshin MD. New approaches for managing antiphospholipid syndrome. Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol. 2009 Mar;5(3):160-70. Abstract

16. Pierangeli SS, Vega-Ostertag ME, Gonzalez EB. New targeted therapies for treatment of thrombosis in antiphospholipid syndrome. Expert Rev Mol Med. 2007 Nov 13;9(30):1-15. Abstract

17. Salmon JE, Girardi G. Theodore E. Woodward Award: antiphospholipid syndrome revisited: a disorder initiated by inflammation. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2007;118:99-114.Full text  Abstract

18. Girardi G, Berman J, Redecha P, et al. Complement C5a receptors and neutrophils mediate fetal injury in the antiphospholipid syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2003 Dec;112(11):1644-54.Full text  Abstract

19. Lynch AM, Murphy JR, Byers T, et al. Alternative complement pathway activation fragment Bb in early pregnancy as a predictor of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Apr;198(4):385.e1-9.Full text  Abstract

20. Rand JH, Wu XX, Lapinski R, et al. Detection of antibody-mediated reduction of annexin A5 anticoagulant activity in plasmas of patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood. 2004 Nov 1;104(9):2783-90. Abstract

21. Rand JH, Wu XX. Antibody-mediated interference with annexins in the antiphospholipid syndrome. Thromb Res. 2004;114(5-6):383-9. Abstract

22. de Laat B, Wu XX, van Lummel M, et al. Correlation between antiphospholipid antibodies that recognize domain I of beta2-glycoprotein I and a reduction in the anticoagulant activity of annexin A5. Blood. 2007 Feb 15;109(4):1490-4. Abstract

23. Cervera R, Piette JC, Font J, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunologic manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1019-1027. Abstract

24. Pierrot-Deseilligny Despujol C, Michel M, Khellaf M, et al. Antiphospholipid antibodies in adults with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. Br J Haematol. 2008 Aug;142(4):638-43.Full text  Abstract

25. Schreiber K, Sciascia S, de Groot PG, et al. Antiphospholipid syndrome. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 Jan 11;4:17103. Abstract

26. Ferreira E, Bettencourt PM, Moura LM. Valvular lesions in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome: an old disease but a persistent challenge. Rev Port Cardiol. 2012 Apr;31(4):295-9. Abstract

27. Tektonidou MG. Renal involvement in the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS)-APS nephropathy. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2009;36:131-140. Abstract

28. Rodrigues CE, Carvalho JF, Shoenfeld Y. Neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010 Apr;40(4):350-9. Abstract

29. Arnson Y, Shoenfeld Y, Alon E, et al. The antiphospholipid syndrome as a neurological disease. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Oct;40(2):97-108. Abstract

30. Ashrani AA, Heit JA. Incidence and cost burden of post-thrombotic syndrome. J Thromb Thrombolysis 2009 Nov;28(4):465-76. Abstract

31. Brandt JT, Triplett DA, Alving B, et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants: an update. On behalf of the Subcommittee on Lupus Anticoagulant/Antiphospholipid Antibody of the Scientific and Standardisation Committee of the ISTH. Thromb Haemost. 1995 Oct;74(4):1185-90. Abstract

32. Pengo V, Tripodi A, Reber G, et al. Update of the guidelines for lupus anticoagulant detection. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Oct;7(10):1737-40.Full text  Abstract

33. Devreese KM, Pierangeli SS, de Laat B, et al. Testing for antiphospholipid antibodies with solid phase assays: recommendations from the Subcommittee on Lupus Anticoagulant/Phospholipid-Dependent Antibodies. J Thromb Haemost. 2014 May;12(5):792-5. Abstract

34. Ruiz-Irastorza G, Crowther M, Branch W, Khamashta MA. Antiphospholipid syndrome. Lancet. 2010 Oct 30;376(9751):1498-509. Abstract

35. Abreu MM, Danowski A, Wahl DG, et al. The relevance of "non-criteria" clinical manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome: 14th International Congress on Antiphospholipid Antibodies Technical Task Force Report on Antiphospholipid Syndrome Clinical Features. Autoimmun Rev. 2015 May;14(5):401-14. Abstract

36. Derksen RH, de Groot PG, Kater L, et al. Patients with antiphospholipid antibodies and venous thrombosis should receive long term anticoagulant treatment. Ann Rheum Dis. 1993 Sep;52(9):689-92.Full text  Abstract

37. Schulman S, Svenungsson E, Granqvist S. Anticardiolipin antibodies predict early recurrence of thromboembolism and death among patients with venous thromboembolism following anticoagulant therapy: Duration of Anticoagulation Study Group. Am J Med. 1998 Apr;104(4):332-8. Abstract

38. Tektonidou MG, Andreoli L, Limper M, et al. EULAR recommendations for the management of antiphospholipid syndrome in adults. Ann Rheum Dis. 2019 Oct;78(10):1296-1304.Full text  Abstract

39. Crowther MA, Ginsberg JS, Julian J, et al. A comparison of two intensities of warfarin for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 18;349(12):1133-8.Full text  Abstract

40. Finazzi G, Marchioli R, Brancaccio V, et al. A randomized clinical trial of high-intensity warfarin vs. conventional antithrombotic therapy for the prevention of recurrent thrombosis in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome (WAPS). J Thromb Haemost. 2005 May;3(5):848-53.Full text  Abstract

41. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs): increased risk of recurrent thrombotic events in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. June 2019 [internet publication].Full text

42. Pengo V, Denas G, Zoppellaro G, et al. Rivaroxaban vs warfarin in high-risk patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. Blood. 2018 Sep 27;132(13):1365-71.Full text  Abstract

43. Branch DW, Silver RM, Blackwell JL, et al. Outcome of treated pregnancies in women with antiphospholipid syndrome: an update of the Utah experience. Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Oct;80(4):614-20. Abstract

44. Lima F, Khamashta MA, Buchanan NM, et al. A study of sixty pregnancies in patients with the antiphospholipid syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 1996 Mar-Apr;14(2):131-6. Abstract

45. Rosove MH, Tabsh K, Wasserstrum N, et al. Heparin therapy for pregnant women with lupus anticoagulant or anticardiolipin antibodies. Obstet Gynecol. 1990 Apr;75(4):630-4. Abstract

46. Committee on Practice Bulletins - Obstetrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Practice bulletin No. 132: antiphospholipid syndrome. Obstet Gynecol. 2012 Dec;120(6):1514-21. Abstract

47. Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. Reducing the risk of thrombosis and embolism during pregnancy and the puerperium. Green-top Guideline No. 37a. April 2015. [internet publication].Full text

48. Mak A, Cheung MW, Cheak AA, et al. Combination of heparin and aspirin is superior to aspirin alone in enhancing live births in patients with recurrent pregnancy loss and positive anti-phospholipid antibodies: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and meta-regression. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2010 Feb;49(2):281-8. Abstract

49. Ziakas PD, Pavlou M, Voulgarelis M. Heparin treatment in antiphospholipid syndrome with recurrent pregnancy loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jun;115(6):1256-62. Abstract

50. Hamulyák EN, Scheres LJ, Marijnen MC, et al. Aspirin or heparin or both for improving pregnancy outcomes in women with persistent antiphospholipid antibodies and recurrent pregnancy loss. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 May 2;5:CD012852.Full text  Abstract

51. Bouvier S, Cochery-Nouvellon E, Lavigne-Lissalde G, et al. Comparative incidence of pregnancy outcomes in treated obstetric antiphospholipid syndrome: the NOH-APS observational study. Blood. 2014 Jan 16;123(3):404-13. Abstract

52. Hunt BJ, Missfelder-Lobos H, Parra-Cordero M, et al. Pregnancy outcome and fibrinolytic, endothelial and coagulation markers in women undergoing uterine artery Doppler screening at 23 weeks. J Thromb Haemost. 2009 Jun;7(6):955-61.Full text  Abstract

53. Di Nisio M, Rutjes AW, Ferrante N, et al. Thrombophilia and outcomes of assisted reproduction technologies: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Blood. 2011 Sep 8;118(10):2670-8. Abstract

54. Erkan D, Lockshin MD; APS ACTION members. APS ACTION - AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking. Lupus. 2012 Jun;21(7):695-8.Full text  Abstract

55. Hereng T, Lambert M, Hachulla E, et al. Influence of aspirin on the clinical outcomes of 103 anti-phospholipid antibodies-positive patients. Lupus. 2008 Jan;17(1):11-5. Abstract

56. Erkan D, Yazici Y, Peterson MG, et al. A cross-sectional study of clinical thrombotic risk factors and preventive treatments in antiphospholipid syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2002 Aug;41(8):924-9.Full text  Abstract

57. Erkan D, Harrison MJ, Levy R, et al. Aspirin for primary thrombosis prevention in the antiphospholipid syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in asymptomatic antiphospholipid antibody-positive individuals. Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jul;56(7):2382-91.Full text  Abstract

58. Arnaud L, Mathian A, Ruffatti A, et al. Efficacy of aspirin for the primary prevention of thrombosis in patients with antiphospholipid antibodies: an international and collaborative meta-analysis. Autoimmun Rev. 2014 Mar;13(3):281-91. Abstract

59. Christiansen M, Grove EL, Hvas AM. Primary prevention of cardiovascular events with aspirin: toward more harm than benefit-a systematic review and meta-analysis. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2019 Jul;45(5):478-89. Abstract

60. Aguiar CL, Erkan D. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: how to diagnose a rare but highly fatal disease. Ther Adv Musculoskelet Dis. 2013 Dec;5(6):305-14.Full text  Abstract

61. Rubenstein E, Arkfeld DG, Metyas S, et al. Rituximab treatment for resistant antiphospholipid syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2006 Feb;33(2):355-7. Abstract

62. Tinti MG, Carnevale V, Inglese M, et al. Eculizumab in refractory catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome: a case report and systematic review of the literature. Clin Exp Med. 2019 Aug;19(3):281-8. Abstract

63. Wallace DJ. Does hydroxychloroquine sulfate prevent clot formation in systemic lupus erythematosus? Arthritis Rheum. 1987 Dec;30(12):1435-6. Abstract

64. Schreiber K, Breen K, Cohen H, et al. Hydroxychloroquine to improve pregnancy outcome in women with antiphospholipid antibodies (HYPATIA) protocol: a multinational randomized controlled trial of hydroxychloroquine versus placebo in addition to standard treatment in pregnant women with antiphospholipid syndrome or antibodies. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2017 Sep;43(6):562-71.Full text  Abstract

65. Rand JH, Wu XX, Quinn AS, et al. Hydroxychloroquine directly reduces the binding of antiphospholipid antibody-beta2-glycoprotein I complexes to phospholipid bilayers. Blood. 2008 Sep 1;112(5):1687-95.Full text  Abstract

66. Glynn RJ, Danielson E, Fonseca FA, et al. A randomized trial of rosuvastatin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 30;360(18):1851-61.Full text  Abstract

67. Kunutsor SK, Seidu S, Khunti K. Statins and primary prevention of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Haematol. 2017 Feb;4(2):e83-93. Abstract

68. Khamashta MA, Cuadrado MJ, Mujic F, et al. The management of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid-antibody syndrome. N Engl J Med. 1995 Apr 13;332(15):993-7.Full text  Abstract

69. Kearon C, Gent M, Hirsh J, et al. A comparison of three months of anticoagulation with extended anticoagulation for a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 1999 Mar 25;340(12):901-7. Abstract

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