Whipple's disease

References

Key articles

Raoult D, Ogata H, Audic S, et al. Tropheryma whipplei twist: a human pathogenic Actinobacteria with a reduced genome. Genome Res. 2003 Aug;13(8):1800-9.Full text  Abstract

Bentley SD, Maiwald M, Murphy LD, et al. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of the Whipple's disease bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Lancet. 2003 Feb 22;361(9358):637-44. Abstract

Schneider T, Moos V, Loddenkemper C, et al. Whipple's disease: new aspects of pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Mar;8(3):179-90. Abstract

Fenollar F, Puechal X, Raoult D. Whipple's disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):55-66.

Dobbins WO. Whipple's disease. Springfield, IL: Thomas; 1987.

Feurle GE, Moos V, Schinnerling K, et al. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in Whipple disease: a cohort study. Ann Int Med. 2010 Dec 7;153(11):710-7. Abstract

Martinetti M, Biagi F, Badulli C, et al. The HLA alleles DRB1*13 and DQB1*06 are associated to Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jun;136(7):2289-94. Abstract

Lagier JC, Fenollar F, Lepidi H, et al. Failure and relapse after treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in classic Whipple's disease. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Sep;65(9):2005-12. Abstract

Reference articles

1. Raoult D, Ogata H, Audic S, et al. Tropheryma whipplei twist: a human pathogenic Actinobacteria with a reduced genome. Genome Res. 2003 Aug;13(8):1800-9.Full text  Abstract

2. Bentley SD, Maiwald M, Murphy LD, et al. Sequencing and analysis of the genome of the Whipple's disease bacterium Tropheryma whipplei. Lancet. 2003 Feb 22;361(9358):637-44. Abstract

3. Schoniger-Hekele M, Petermann D, Weber B, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in the environment: survey of sewage plant influxes and sewage plant workers. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Mar;73(6):2033-5.Full text  Abstract

4. Maiwald M, Schuhmacher F, Ditton HJ, et al. Environmental occurrence of the Whipple's disease bacterium (Tropheryma whippelii). Appl Environ Microbiol. 1998 Feb;64(2):760-2.Full text  Abstract

5. Fenollar F, Trani M, Davoust B, et al. Prevalence of asymptomatic Tropheryma whipplei carriage among humans and nonhuman primates. J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15;197(6):880-7.Full text  Abstract

6. Ehrbar HU, Bauerfeind P, Dutly F, et al. PCR-positive tests for Tropheryma whippelii in patients without Whipple's disease. Lancet. 1999 Jun 26;353(9171):2214. Abstract

7. Amsler L, Bauernfeind P, Nigg C, et al. Prevalence of Tropheryma whipplei DNA in patients with various gastrointestinal diseases and in healthy controls. Infection. 2003 Mar;31(2):81-5. Abstract

8. Maibach RC, Dutly F, Altwegg M. Detection of Tropheryma whipplei DNA in feces by PCR using a target capture method. J Clin Microbiol. 2002 Jul;40(7):2466-71.Full text  Abstract

9. Zinkernagel AS, Gmur R, Fenner L, et al. Marginal and subgingival plaque: a natural habitat of Tropheryma whipplei? Infection. 2003 Mar;31(2):86-91. Abstract

10. Rolain JM, Fenollar F, Raoult D. False positive PCR detection of Tropheryma whipplei in the saliva of healthy people. BMC Microbiol. 2007 May 29;7:48.Full text  Abstract

11. Schneider T, Moos V, Loddenkemper C, et al. Whipple's disease: new aspects of pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008 Mar;8(3):179-90. Abstract

12. Fenollar F, Puechal X, Raoult D. Whipple's disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 4;356(1):55-66.

13. Dobbins WO 3rd. Is there an immune deficit in Whipple's disease? Dig Dis Sci. 1981 Mar;26(3):247-52. Abstract

14. Dobbins WO. Whipple's disease. Springfield, IL: Thomas; 1987.

15. Gubler JG, Kuster M, Dutly F, et al. Whipple endocarditis without overt gastrointestinal disease: report of four cases. Ann Intern Med. 1999 Jul 20;131(2):112-6. Abstract

16. Weber U, Morf MH, Gubler JG, et al. Spondylodiscitis as the first manifestation of Whipple's disease: a removal worker with chronic low back pain. Clin Rheumatol. 2003 Dec;22(6):443-6. Abstract

17. Pruss H, Katchanov J, Zschenderlein R, et al. A patient with cerebral Whipple disease with gastric involvement but no gastrointestinal symptoms: a consequence of local protective immunity? J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007 Aug;78(8):896-8. Abstract

18. Feurle GE, Moos V, Schinnerling K, et al. The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in Whipple disease: a cohort study. Ann Int Med. 2010 Dec 7;153(11):710-7. Abstract

19. Elchert JA, Mansoor E, Abou-Saleh M, et al. Epidemiology of Whipple's Disease in the USA Between 2012 and 2017: A Population-Based National Study. Dig Dis Sci. 2019 May;64(5):1305-11.Full text  Abstract

20. von Herbay A, Otto HF, Stolte M, et al. Epidemiology of Whipple's disease in Germany: analysis of 110 patients diagnosed in 1965-95. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1997 Jan;32(1):52-7. Abstract

21. Martinetti M, Biagi F, Badulli C, et al. The HLA alleles DRB1*13 and DQB1*06 are associated to Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 2009 Jun;136(7):2289-94. Abstract

22. Marth T, Raoult D. Whipple's disease. Lancet. 2003 Jan 18;361(9353):239-46. Abstract

23. Raoult D, Fenollar F, Rolain JM, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in children with gastroenteritis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 May;16(5):776-82.Full text  Abstract

24. Fenollar F, Trape JF, Bassene H, et al. Tropheryma whipplei in fecal samples from children, Senegal. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009 Jun;15(6):922-4.Full text  Abstract

25. Moos V, Kunkel D, Marth T, et al. Reduced peripheral and mucosal Tropheryma whipplei-specific Th1 response in patients with Whipple's disease. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 1;177(3):2015-22.Full text  Abstract

26. Bonhomme CJ, Renesto P, Nandi S, et al. Serological microarray for a paradoxical diagnostic of Whipple's disease. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2008 Oct;27(10):959-68. Abstract

27. Desnues B, Ihrig M, Raoult D, et al. Whipple's disease: a macrophage disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006 Feb;13(2):170-8.Full text  Abstract

28. Bai JC, Sen L, Diez R, et al. Impaired monocyte function in patients successfully treated for Whipple's disease. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 1996;26(2):85-9. Abstract

29. Lukacs G, Dobi S, Szabo M. A case of Whipple's disease with repeated operations for ileus and complete cure. Acta Hepatogastroenterol (Stuttg). 1978 Jun;25(3):238-42. Abstract

30. Ghigo E, Capo C, Aurouze M, et al. Survival of Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, requires phagosome acidification. Infect Immun. 2002 Mar;70(3):1501-6.Full text  Abstract

31. Marth T, Roux M, von Herbay A, et al. Persistent reduction of complement receptor 3 alpha-chain expressing mononuclear blood cells and transient inhibitory serum factors in Whipple's disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Aug;72(2):217-26. Abstract

32. Ectors N, Geboes K, De Vos R, et al. Whipple's disease: a histological, immunocytochemical and electronmicroscopic study of the immune response in the small intestinal mucosa. Histopathology. 1992 Jul;21(1):1-12. Abstract

33. Kalt A, Schneider T, Ring S, et al. Decreased levels of interleukin-12p40 in the serum of patients with Whipple's disease. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar;21(2):114-20. Abstract

34. Marth T, Neurath M, Cuccherini BA, et al. Defects of monocyte interleukin 12 production and humoral immunity in Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 1997 Aug;113(2):442-8. Abstract

35. Desnues B, Lepidi H, Raoult D, et al. Whipple disease: intestinal infiltrating cells exhibit a transcriptional pattern of M2/alternatively activated macrophages. J Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1;192(9):1642-6.Full text  Abstract

36. Moos V, Schmidt C, Geelhaar A, et al. Impaired immune functions of monocytes and macrophages in Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 2010 Jan;138(1):210-20. Abstract

37. Marth T, Kleen N, Stallmach A, et al. Dysregulated peripheral and mucosal Th1/Th2 response in Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 2002 Nov;123(5):1468-77. Abstract

38. Schoedon G, Goldenberger D, Forrer R, et al. Deactivation of macrophages with interleukin-4 is the key to the isolation of Tropheryma whippelii. J Infect Dis. 1997 Sep;176(3):672-7. Abstract

39. Friedmann AC, Perera GK, Jayaprakasam A, et al. Whipple's disease presenting with symmetrical panniculitis. Br J Dermatol. 2004 Oct;151(4):907-11. Abstract

40. Tarroch X, Vives P, Salas A, et al. Subcutaneous nodules in Whipple's disease. J Cutan Pathol. 2001 Aug;28(7):368-70. Abstract

41. Helliwell TR, Appleton RE, Mapstone NC, et al. Dermatomyositis and Whipple's disease. Neuromuscul Disord. 2000 Jan;10(1):46-51. Abstract

42. Kwee D, Fields JP, King LE Jr. Subcutaneous Whipple's disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Jan;16(1 Pt 2):188-90. Abstract

43. Cho C, Linscheer WG, Hirschkorn MA, et al. Sarcoidlike granulomas as an early manifestation of Whipple's disease. Gastroenterology. 1984 Oct;87(4):941-7. Abstract

44. Viteri AL, Stinson JC, Barnes MC, et al. Rod-shaped organism in the liver of a patient with Whipple's disease. Dig Dis Sci. 1979 Jul;24(7):560-4. Abstract

45. Puget M, Iwaz J, Tristan A, et al. Whipple's disease with muscle impairment. Muscle Nerve. 2006 Dec;34(6):794-8. Abstract

46. Misbah SA, Stirzaker D, Ozols B, et al. Anonymous survey of blood donors by polymerase chain reaction for Tropheryma whippelii. QJM. 1999 Jan;92(1):61.Full text  Abstract

47. Mahnel R, Kalt A, Ring S, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy in Whipple's disease patients is associated with the appearance of gastrointestinal manifestations. Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 May;100(5):1167-73. Abstract

48. Louis ED, Lynch T, Kaufmann P, et al. Diagnostic guidelines in central nervous system Whipple's disease. Ann Neurol. 1996 Oct;40(4):561-8. Abstract

49. Keinath RD, Merrell DE, Vlietstra R, et al. Antibiotic treatment and relapse in Whipple's disease: long-term follow-up of 88 patients. Gastroenterology. 1985 Jun;88(6):1867-73. Abstract

50. Durand DV, Lecomte C, Cathebras P, et al. Whipple disease: clinical review of 52 cases. The SNFMI Research Group on Whipple Disease. Societe Nationale Francaise de Medecine Interne. Medicine (Baltimore). 1997 May;76(3):170-84. Abstract

51. Gerard A, Sarrot-Reynauld F, Liozon E, et al. Neurologic presentation of Whipple disease: report of 12 cases and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore). 2002 Nov;81(6):443-57. Abstract

52. Messori A, Di Bella P, Polonara G, et al. An unusual spinal presentation of Whipple disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001 May;22(5):1004-8.Full text  Abstract

53. Mendel E, Khoo LT, Go JL, et al. Intracerebral Whipple's disease diagnosed by stereotactic biopsy: a case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 1999 Jan;44(1):203-9. Abstract

54. Feurle GE, Utz G, Kies D, et al. Neurological manifestations of Whipple's disease. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1976 Nov 20;106(47):1642-6. Abstract

55. Feurle GE, Volk B, Waldherr R. Cerebral Whipple's disease with negative jejunal histology. N Engl J Med. 1979 Apr 19;300(16):907-8. Abstract

56. Fenollar F, Raoult D. Whipple's disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2001;8(1):1-8.Full text  Abstract

57. Fenollar F, Raoult D. Molecular techniques in Whipple's disease. Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2001 Sep;1(3):299-309. Abstract

58. Maiwald M, von Herbay A, Persing DH, et al. Tropheryma whippelii DNA is rare in the intestinal mucosa of patients without other evidence of Whipple disease. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jan 16;134(2):115-9.Full text  Abstract

59. Misbah SA, Mapstone NP. Whipple's disease revisited. J Clin Pathol. 2000 Oct;53(10):750-5.Full text  Abstract

60. Krober SM, Kaiserling E, Horny HP, et al. Primary diagnosis of Whipple's disease in bone marrow. Hum Pathol. 2004 Apr;35(4):522-5. Abstract

61. Walter R, Bachmann SP, Schaffner A, et al. Bone marrow involvement in Whipple's disease: rarely reported, but really rare? Br J Haematol. 2001 Mar;112(3):677-9.Full text  Abstract

62. Lepidi H, Fenollar F, Gerolami R, et al. Whipple's disease: immunospecific and quantitative immunohistochemical study of intestinal biopsy specimens. Hum Pathol. 2003 Jun;34(6):589-96. Abstract

63. Baisden BL, Lepidi H, Raoult D, et al. Diagnosis of Whipple disease by immunohistochemical analysis: a sensitive and specific method for the detection of Tropheryma whipplei (the Whipple bacillus) in paraffin-embedded tissue. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002 Nov;118(5):742-8. Abstract

64. Sinha S, Satishchandra P, Gayathri N, et al. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy: a clinical, electrophysiological and pathological study from South India. J Neurol Sci. 2007 Jan 15;252(1):16-23. Abstract

65. Giuffre B, Parini R, Rizzuti T, et al. Severe neonatal onset of glycogenosis type IV: clinical and laboratory findings leading to diagnosis in two siblings. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2004;27(5):609-19. Abstract

66. Kulczycki J, Collinge J, Lojkowska W, et al. Report on the first Polish case of the Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome. Folia Neuropathol. 2001;39(1):27-31. Abstract

67. von Herbay A, Ditton HJ, Schuhmacher F, et al. Whipple's disease: staging and monitoring by cytology and polymerase chain reaction analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Gastroenterology. 1997 Aug;113(2):434-41. Abstract

68. Ramzan NN, Loftus E Jr, Burgart LJ, et al. Diagnosis and monitoring of Whipple disease by polymerase chain reaction. Ann Intern Med. 1997 Apr 1;126(7):520-7. Abstract

69. von Herbay A, Maiwald M, Ditton HJ, et al. Histology of intestinal Whipple's disease revisited: a study of 48 patients. Virchows Arch. 1996 Dec;429(6):335-43. Abstract

70. Kowalczewska M, Fenollar F, Lafitte D, et al. Identification of candidate antigen in Whipple's disease using a serological proteomic approach. Proteomics. 2006 Jun;6(11):3294-3305. Abstract

71. Boulos A, Rolain JM, Raoult D. Antibiotic susceptibility of Tropheryma whipplei in MRC5 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 Mar;48(3):747-52.Full text  Abstract

72. Boulos A, Rolain JM, Mallet MN, et al. Molecular evaluation of antibiotic susceptibility of Tropheryma whipplei in axenic medium. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Feb;55(2):178-81.Full text  Abstract

73. Lagier JC, Fenollar F, Lepidi H, et al. Treatment of classic Whipple's disease: from in vitro results to clinical outcome. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Jan;69(1):219-27. Abstract

74. Fenollar F, Rolain JM, Alric L, et al. Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and Tropheryma whipplei. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2009 Sep;34(3):255-9. Abstract

75. Lagier JC, Fenollar F, Lepidi H, et al. Failure and relapse after treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole in classic Whipple's disease. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010 Sep;65(9):2005-12. Abstract

76. Marumganti AR, Murphy TF. Whipple's disease: neurological relapse presenting as headache for two years. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Dec;23(12):2131-3. Abstract

77. Garas G, Cheng WS, Abrugiato R, et al. Clinical relapse in Whipple's disease despite maintenance therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2000 Oct;15(10):1223-6. Abstract

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