Assessment of metabolic acidosis

References

Key articles

Kraut JA, Madias NE. Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010 May;6(5):274-85.Full text  Abstract

Royal College of Pathologists of Australia. Acidosis. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

Reference articles

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3. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis: a pathophysiologic approach. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2012 Oct;8(10):589-601.Full text  Abstract

4. Gunnerson KJ, Saul M, He S, et al. Lactate versus non-lactate metabolic acidosis: a retrospective outcome evaluation of critically ill patients. Crit Care. 2006 Feb;10(1):R22.Full text  Abstract

5. Kraut JA, Madias NE. Metabolic acidosis: pathophysiology, diagnosis and management. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2010 May;6(5):274-85.Full text  Abstract

6. Winter SD, Pearson JR, Gabow PA, et al. The fall of the serum anion gap. Arch Intern Med. 1990 Feb;150(2):311-3.Full text  Abstract

7. Matyukhin I, Patschan S, Ritter O, et al. Etiology and management of acute metabolic acidosis: An update. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2020;45(4):523-531.Full text  Abstract

8. Fenves AZ, Emmett M. Approach to patients with high anion gap metabolic acidosis: Core curriculum 2021. Am J Kidney Dis. 2021 Oct;78(4):590-600.Full text  Abstract

9. Jung B, Martinez M, Claessens YE, et al. Diagnosis and management of metabolic acidosis: guidelines from a French expert panel. Ann Intensive Care. 2019 Aug 15;9(1):92.Full text  Abstract

10. Fujii T, Udy A, Licari E, et al. Sodium bicarbonate therapy for critically ill patients with metabolic acidosis: A scoping and a systematic review. J Crit Care. 2019 Jun;51:184-191.Full text  Abstract

11. Fujii T, Udy AA, Nichol A, et al. Incidence and management of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate in the ICU: An international observational study. Crit Care. 2021 Feb 2;25(1):45.Full text  Abstract

12. Jaber S, Paugam C, Futier E, et al. Sodium bicarbonate therapy for patients with severe metabolic acidaemia in the intensive care unit (BICAR-ICU): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled, phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2018 Jul 7;392(10141):31-40.Full text  Abstract

13. Ghauri SK, Javaeed A, Mustafa KJ, et al. Bicarbonate therapy for critically ill patients with metabolic acidosis: A systematic review. Cureus. 2019 Mar 22;11(3):e4297.Full text  Abstract

14. ClinicalTrials.gov. Sodium bicarbonate for the treatment of severe metabolic acidosis with moderate or severe acute kidney injury in ICU (BICARICU-2). Feb 2022 [internet publication].Full text  Abstract

15. Berend K, de Vries AP, Gans RO. Physiological approach to assessment of acid-base disturbances. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 8;371(2):1434-45. Abstract

16. Seifter JL. Integration of acid-base and electrolyte disorders. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jan 22;371(4):1821-31. Abstract

17. Royal College of Pathologists of Australia. Acidosis. Jan 2019 [internet publication].Full text

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19. Elkinton JR. Clinical disorders of acid-base regulation: A survey of seventeen years diagnostic experience. Med Clin North Am. 1966 Sep;50(5):1325-50. Abstract

20. Gabow PA, Kaehny WD, Fennessey PV, et al. Diagnostic importance of an increased serum anion gap. N Engl J Med. 1980 Oct 9;303(15):854-58. Abstract

21. Batlle DC, Hizon M, Cohen E, et al. The use of urinary anion gap in the diagnosis of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. N Engl J Med. 1988 Mar 10;318(10):594-9. Abstract

22. Rehman A, Setter SM, Vue MH. Drug-induced glucose alterations part 2: Drug-induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes Spectr. 2011 Nov;24(4)234-8Full text

23. FDA. Drug Safety Update: SGLT2 inhibitors: updated advice on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. May 2015 [internet publication].Full text

24. Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. SGLT2 inhibitors: updated advice on the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. April 2016 [internet publication].Full text

25. Shapiro JI. Pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction during metabolic acidosis: therapeutic implications. Kidney Int. 1997 Oct;61:S47-51. Abstract

26. McGuire LC, Cruickshank AM, Munro PT. Alcoholic ketoacidosis. Emerg Med J. 2006 Jun;23(6):417-20.Full text  Abstract

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