Last reviewed: 25 Sep 2021
Last updated: 13 Mar 2019

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • malignancy
  • presence of other risk factors
  • dyspnoea
  • elevated jugular venous pressure
  • distant heart sounds
  • pulsus paradoxus
  • hypotension
  • tachycardia
  • recent invasive cardiac intervention procedure

Other diagnostic factors

  • chest pain
  • abdominal pain
  • confusion
  • fever
  • pericardial rub

Risk factors

  • malignancy
  • aortic dissection
  • purulent pericarditis
  • large idiopathic pericardial effusion
  • iatrogenic-related haemorrhage
  • tuberculosis (TB)
  • autoimmune disease
  • hypothyroidism
  • uraemia
  • anticoagulation

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • ECG
  • transthoracic echocardiogram
  • CXR
  • FBC
  • erythrocyte sedimentation rate
  • cardiac enzymes

Investigations to consider

  • cardiac catheterisation
  • pericardiocentesis fluid for culture and cytology

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors

Vaikom S. Mahadevan, MD

Professor of Medicine

Division of Cardiology

University of California

San Francisco

CA

Disclosures

VSM declares that he is a proctor for Edwards Lifesciences for transcatheter valves and also a proctor for Abbott for closure devices.

Harsh Agrawal, MD

Fellow in Structural Cardiac Intervention

University of California

San Francisco

CA

Disclosures

HA declares that he has no competing interests.

Acknowledgements

Dr Vaikom S. Mahadevan and Dr Harsh Agrawal would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Jonathan Bella, Dr Liran Blum, and Dr Michael Spinelli, previous contributors to this topic.

Disclosures

JB, LB, and MS declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers

Ramon Castello, MD

Professor of Medicine

Director of Echocardiography

Mayo Clinic

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

RC declares that he has no competing interests.

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