Last reviewed: September 2018
Last updated: March  2018

Summary

Definition

History and exam

Key diagnostic factors

  • malignancy
  • presence of other risk factors
  • dyspnoea
  • elevated jugular venous pressure
  • distant heart sounds
  • pulsus paradoxus
  • hypotension
  • tachycardia
  • recent invasive cardiac intervention procedure

Other diagnostic factors

  • chest pain
  • abdominal pain
  • confusion
  • fever
  • pericardial rub

Risk factors

  • malignancy
  • aortic dissection
  • purulent pericarditis
  • large idiopathic pericardial effusion
  • iatrogenic-related haemorrhage
  • tuberculosis
  • autoimmune disease
  • hypothyroidism
  • uraemia
  • anticoagulation

Diagnostic investigations

1st investigations to order

  • ECG
  • transthoracic echocardiogram
  • CXR
  • FBC
  • ESR
  • cardiac enzymes
Full details

Investigations to consider

  • cardiac catheterisation
  • pericardiocentesis fluid for culture and cytology
Full details

Treatment algorithm

Contributors

Authors VIEW ALL

Chief

Division of Cardiology

Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center

Bronx

NY

Disclosures

JB declares that he has no competing interests.

Dr Jonathan Bella would like to gratefully acknowledge Dr Liran Blum and Dr Michael Spinelli, previous contributors to this monograph. LB and MS declare that they have no competing interests.

Peer reviewers VIEW ALL

Professor of Medicine

Division of Cardiology

University of California

San Francisco

CA

Disclosures

VM declares that he has no competing interests.

Professor of Medicine

Director of Echocardiography

Mayo Clinic

Jacksonville

FL

Disclosures

RC declares that he has no competing interests.

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