Nearly 53% of patients with confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) have died since 2003.[26] Those who had progressive disease generally died from complications of ARDS and multi-organ failure. Early recognition of disease and early initiation of oseltamivir treatment may be associated with improved outcomes. The presence of rhinorrhoea appears to indicate a better prognosis for children with HPAI H5N1.[24]

Management should follow evidence-based clinical care guidelines for ARDS, septic shock, and other critical care illness. No studies have assessed the long-term sequelae of infection among survivors, but most survivors had only mild disease.

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